IELTS Topic-based vocabulary: environment; with definitions/meanings and example sentences

IELTS Topic-based vocabulary: environment; with definitions/meanings and example sentences

This post focuses on a shortlist of some most common words used in IELTS Writing, Speaking, Reading and Listening. Here, IELTS candidates can learn and practice environment-related words and phrases. All the words are given here with definitions/meanings and their use in example sentences. This vocabulary list will help you write essays and speak on the environment, nature, natural and human-made changes in the atmosphere, etc. 

Vocabulary list on ‘Environment’:  

Acid raina rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic – The report shows that acidity of the soil in that region was caused by acid rain.

Adapt get adjusted to new conditions – It takes quite a long time to adapt in this harsh environment.

Animal sanctuary – a facility where animals are brought to life and to be protected – Animal sanctuaries are the safest places for endangered animals. 

Biodegradable able to be decomposed by bacteria or other living organisms and thereby avoiding pollution – Bacteria can process toxic wastes and oil spills into safe biodegradable products.

Biodiversity the variety of plant and animal life in the world or in a particular habitat – Overpopulation is affecting the biodiversity in different parts of the world.

Biohazard – a risk to human health or the environment arising from organic work, especially with microbes – The parcel was wrapped in a red bag with a biohazard symbol printed on it.

Carbon emissions carbon-based wastes that planes, cars, factories, etc. produce and thought to be harmful – The major source of natural carbon emissions is from the exchange of CO2 between the oceans and the atmosphere.

Conservationavoidance of lavish use of a resource – The new conservation policy can save some endangered animals.

Contamination – pollution of something by another substance – Scientists have already found high level of environmental contamination.

Deforestation – clearing of a large area of plants and trees – Deforestation is a common threat to environment nowadays.  

Desertification – the process by which fertile lands become arid and barren, mainly due to drought, pollution and deforestation, – Some trees like cork oak can prevent desertification.

Ecosystem all the living things in a particular area and the way they have an effect on each other and the environment – Reducing carbon emission will have a positive impact on the ecosystem.

Endangered – in danger of extinction – Due to continuous bushfires in Australia, koala and kangaroo are becoming endangered.   

Erosion – the damage of soil, stones etc. by waves, rain or wind,The town is being threatened by erosion of the Padma river banks.

Exhaust emissionssubstances that come out of an exhaust system into the atmosphere – The toxic levels of vehicle exhaust emissions are increasing day by day.

Extinction – the process of disappearing from the earth forever – Many animals are on the verge of extinction due to excessive pollution.

Flora and fauna – the plants and animals of a placeThis special park is home to a great range of local flora and fauna.

Forestation – the planting of trees over a wide area – The state authority has taken a special forestation campaign in the selected areas of Youthville County.

Forest reserves – forests accorded a certain degree of protection – There are no formal parking facilities in these forest reserves as such facilities may become a threat to wildlife.

Fossil fuelnatural fuels such as coal, gas and oil – The reserve of fossil fuels is depleting rapidly.

Fumegas or vapour that smells strongly or is dangerous to inhale – They felt sick from breathing in paint fumes.

Garbage/rubbish/ litterwaste materials produced from human, animal or vegetation that we generally throw away – We must not throw away garbage/rubbish/waste here and there.

Genetically modified (crops or organisms) having genetic components that have been synthetically altered to create a desired quality – These special paddy seeds have been genetically modified by the research team of Bangladesh Agriculture University.

Global warming gradual increase in the general temperature of the world’s atmosphereGlobal warming has become a major phenomenon lately around the world.

Greenhouse effect the entrapment of the sun’s heat in a planet’s lower atmosphere – Greenhouse effect is mainly caused by increased quantities of gases like CO, CO2, CFC, etc. in the atmosphere.

Natural habitat an ecological or environmental region where a particular species lives – Some oil companies are destroying the natural habitats of several bird species lately. 

Hostileunfriendly, adverse – All the deserts have a hostile atmosphere.

Industrial waste – waste material produced by industrial processes or activity – Some mills and factories discharge industrial waste into the rivers and oceans.

Landfill dumping grounds or pits of waste materials – Many tons of waste materials go into the landfills every day.

Man-made – caused or made by humans – Some of the recent world disasters are man-made.

Migration – movement from one part of something to another – A great fall in animal migration has been observed in some countries.

Natural resourcessupplies or substances occurring in nature which can be used for economic gain – Many developing countries like Bangladesh are rich in natural resources.

Nocturnal (mainly wildlife) active at night – Owls and bats are nocturnal creatures.

Oil spill escape of oil into the sea or other body of water – Oil spill in several parts of the Atlantic is a tragedy.

Overgrazing a situation in which there are too many cows or other animals eating grass in an area – The eradication of the grasses on the mountainsides by overgrazing in recent years has increased the flooding.

Pollutant – a substance that pollutes something – Plastics in the ocean is a well-recognized water pollutant.

Rainforest a lavish, thick forest affluent in biodiversity, found characteristically in tropical areas with constant heavy rainfall – Cutting down the rainforest means we are creating an environmental time bomb.

Radiationform of energy that comes from a nuclear reaction and that can be very dangerous to healthEarlier atomic tests resulted in absorbing radiation among many military officers.

Recycling – the action or process of converting waste into reusable material – Every factory should include a section for recycling

Renewable energy – energy from a source that does not deplete, such as solar or wind power – Hydro power and wind power are viable renewable energy resources in coastal areas.

Smog – fog or haze deepened by smoke or other atmospheric pollutants Smog is a major problem in cities like Athens, Beijing, New Delhi etc.

Species a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals able to exchange genes or interbreeding – African rhino species are more popular.  

Sustainable – able to be maintained or defended at certain rate or level; – Some governments are now promoting sustainable agriculture.

Threatened in danger, vulnerable – A big number of animal and insect species have been identified by scientists as endangered species.

Toxic poisonous, contaminated – The air in big cities like Dhaka, New Delhi, Mexico city has become toxic due to pollution.

Ultra-violet ray – a type of invisible ray that is part of the energy that comes from the sun, can burn the skin, and cause skin cancer – Ozone layer protects us from absorbing ultra-violet ray.  

Vegetation – plants found in a particular area – Desert is a place with sparse vegetation.

Wind turbine – a turbine containing a large vane wheel that rotates by the wind to generate electricity – Wind turbines generate electricity for this isolated local community.

Wildlife wild animals as a group; the local fauna (and sometimes flora) of a particular area – The park is the largest wildlife sanctuary in this part of the world.

Click here for vocabulary list on ‘Crime and Punishment’

Click here for vocabulary list on ‘Science and Technology’

Click here for vocabulary list on ‘Education’

Click here for vocabulary list on ‘Pandemic/epidemic/medical crisis’

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