This post focuses on a shortlist of some most common words used in IELTS Writing, Speaking, Reading and Listening. Here, IELTS candidates can learn and practice environment-related words and phrases. All the words are given here with definitions/meanings and their use in example sentences. This vocabulary list will help you write essays and speak on the environment, nature, natural and human-made changes in the atmosphere, etc.
Vocabulary list on ‘Environment’:
Acid rain – a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic – The report shows that acidity of the soil in that region was caused by acid rain.
Adapt – get adjusted to new conditions – It takes quite a long time to adapt in this harsh environment.
Animal sanctuary – a facility where animals are brought to life and to be protected – Animal sanctuaries are the safest places for endangered animals.
Biodegradable – able to be decomposed by bacteria or other living organisms and thereby avoiding pollution – Bacteria can process toxic wastes and oil spills into safe biodegradable products.
Biodiversity – the variety of plant and animal life in the world or in a particular habitat – Overpopulation is affecting the biodiversity in different parts of the world.
Biohazard – a risk to human health or the environment arising from organic work, especially with microbes – The parcel was wrapped in a red bag with a biohazard symbol printed on it.
Carbon emissions – carbon-based wastes that planes, cars, factories, etc. produce and thought to be harmful – The major source of natural carbon emissions is from the exchange of CO2 between the oceans and the atmosphere.
Conservation – avoidance of lavish use of a resource – The new conservation policy can save some endangered animals.
Contamination – pollution of something by another substance – Scientists have already found high level of environmental contamination.
Deforestation – clearing of a large area of plants and trees – Deforestation is a common threat to environment nowadays.
Desertification – the process by which fertile lands become arid and barren, mainly due to drought, pollution and deforestation, – Some trees like cork oak can prevent desertification.
Ecosystem – all the living things in a particular area and the way they have an effect on each other and the environment – Reducing carbon emission will have a positive impact on the ecosystem.
Endangered – in danger of extinction – Due to continuous bushfires in Australia, koala and kangaroo are becoming endangered.
Erosion – the damage of soil, stones etc. by waves, rain or wind, – The town is being threatened by erosion of the Padma river banks.
Exhaust emissions – substances that come out of an exhaust system into the atmosphere – The toxic levels of vehicle exhaust emissions are increasing day by day.
Extinction – the process of disappearing from the earth forever – Many animals are on the verge of extinction due to excessive pollution.
Flora and fauna – the plants and animals of a place – This special park is home to a great range of local flora and fauna.
Forestation – the planting of trees over a wide area – The state authority has taken a special forestation campaign in the selected areas of Youthville County.
Forest reserves – forests accorded a certain degree of protection – There are no formal parking facilities in these forest reserves as such facilities may become a threat to wildlife.
Fossil fuel – natural fuels such as coal, gas and oil – The reserve of fossil fuels is depleting rapidly.
Fume – gas or vapour that smells strongly or is dangerous to inhale – They felt sick from breathing in paint fumes.
Garbage/rubbish/ litter – waste materials produced from human, animal or vegetation that we generally throw away – We must not throw away garbage/rubbish/waste here and there.
Genetically modified – (crops or organisms) having genetic components that have been synthetically altered to create a desired quality – These special paddy seeds have been genetically modified by the research team of Bangladesh Agriculture University.
Global warming – gradual increase in the general temperature of the world’s atmosphere – Global warming has become a major phenomenon lately around the world.
Greenhouse effect – the entrapment of the sun’s heat in a planet’s lower atmosphere – Greenhouse effect is mainly caused by increased quantities of gases like CO, CO2, CFC, etc. in the atmosphere.
Natural habitat – an ecological or environmental region where a particular species lives – Some oil companies are destroying the natural habitats of several bird species lately.
Hostile – unfriendly, adverse – All the deserts have a hostile atmosphere.
Industrial waste – waste material produced by industrial processes or activity – Some mills and factories discharge industrial waste into the rivers and oceans.
Landfill – dumping grounds or pits of waste materials – Many tons of waste materials go into the landfills every day.
Man-made – caused or made by humans – Some of the recent world disasters are man-made.
Migration – movement from one part of something to another – A great fall in animal migration has been observed in some countries.
Natural resources – supplies or substances occurring in nature which can be used for economic gain – Many developing countries like Bangladesh are rich in natural resources.
Nocturnal – (mainly wildlife) active at night – Owls and bats are nocturnal creatures.
Oil spill – escape of oil into the sea or other body of water – Oil spill in several parts of the Atlantic is a tragedy.
Overgrazing – a situation in which there are too many cows or other animals eating grass in an area – The eradication of the grasses on the mountainsides by overgrazing in recent years has increased the flooding.
Pollutant – a substance that pollutes something – Plastics in the ocean is a well-recognized water pollutant.
Rainforest – a lavish, thick forest affluent in biodiversity, found characteristically in tropical areas with constant heavy rainfall – Cutting down the rainforest means we are creating an environmental time bomb.
Radiation – a form of energy that comes from a nuclear reaction and that can be very dangerous to health – Earlier atomic tests resulted in absorbing radiation among many military officers.
Recycling – the action or process of converting waste into reusable material – Every factory should include a section for recycling.
Renewable energy – energy from a source that does not deplete, such as solar or wind power – Hydro power and wind power are viable renewable energy resources in coastal areas.
Smog – fog or haze deepened by smoke or other atmospheric pollutants – Smog is a major problem in cities like Athens, Beijing, New Delhi etc.
Species – a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals able to exchange genes or interbreeding – African rhino species are more popular.
Sustainable – able to be maintained or defended at certain rate or level; – Some governments are now promoting sustainable agriculture.
Threatened – in danger, vulnerable – A big number of animal and insect species have been identified by scientists as endangered species.
Toxic – poisonous, contaminated – The air in big cities like Dhaka, New Delhi, Mexico city has become toxic due to pollution.
Ultra-violet ray – a type of invisible ray that is part of the energy that comes from the sun, can burn the skin, and cause skin cancer – Ozone layer protects us from absorbing ultra-violet ray.
Vegetation – plants found in a particular area – Desert is a place with sparse vegetation.
Wind turbine – a turbine containing a large vane wheel that rotates by the wind to generate electricity – Wind turbines generate electricity for this isolated local community.
Wildlife – wild animals as a group; the local fauna (and sometimes flora) of a particular area – The park is the largest wildlife sanctuary in this part of the world.