IELTS General Training Reading: Cambridge 6 Test A Section 3; THE WATER CRISIS; with top solutions and best explanations
This General Training IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 6 Reading Test A Section 3 that has a passage entitled ‘THE WATER CRISIS’. This is a targeted post for GT IELTS candidates who have big problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the GT module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer without much trouble. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will assist you in this respect.
IELTS Cambridge 6 Test A: GT Reading Module
Section 3: Question 28-40
The headline of the passage: THE WATER CRISIS
Questions 28-34: List of headings:
[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph that will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.
TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly and don’t stop until you finish each sentence.]
Question 28: Paragraph A
The first few lines in paragraph A indicates the answer, “ . .. . As countries industrialise and their citizens become more prosperous, their individual water usage increases rapidly. . .. ..”
Here, the lines suggest that the demand of water increases due to the development in demands due to industrialisation and citizens becoming more prosperous.
So, the answer is: ix (The demands of development)
Question 29: Paragraph B
Paragraph B discusses most water usage by two main sectors; agriculture and industry.
In line no. 1, the writer says, “Agriculture consumes about 70% of the world’s fresh water, . .. ..”
Then, in lines 6-7, the writer says again, “After agriculture, industry is the second biggest user of water . .. .. “
So, the answer is: vi (The thirsty sectors)
Question 30: Paragraph C
Paragraph C talks about how some rich countries have successfully reduced water consumption. The first few lines say, “In rich countries, water consumption has gradually been slowed down by price increases and the use of modern technology and recycling. … …”
Here, price increases, use of modern technology and recycling = successful measures,
Then the writer shows examples from the USA, Japan and Germany.
So, the answer is: iv (Successful measures taken by some)
Question 31: Paragraph D
Paragraph D mainly deals with economic pricing (cost) of water in different countries. Take a look at the following examples:
In lines 1-2, “. .. . impose water charges based on the real cost of supplies.”
In lines 3-4, “ . .. . Few governments charge realistic prices for water, especially to farmers.”
In lines 4-5, “ . .. . Even in rich California, farmers get water for less than a tenth of the cost of supply.”
In lines 5-6, “. .. . In many developing countries there is virtually no charge for irrigation water, while energy prices are heavily subsidised too . .. .”
So, the answer is: ii (Economic pricing)
Question 32: Paragraph E
Paragraph E discusses the ways that can reduce waste of water.
In line no. 1, the writer says, “One way to cut back on water consumption is simply to prevent leaks.”
Here, cut back on water consumption = way of reducing waste of water,
Then, in lines 8-10, “ . … . The modern approach, however, is to see used water as a resource which can be put to good use – either in irrigation or, after careful treatment, as recycled domestic water. .. .. .”
Here, modern approach = an up-to-date way,
So, the answer is: vii (Ways of reducing waste)
Question 33: Paragraph F
For this question, we should have a look at paragraph no. 5 which talks about the change in obtaining dogs.
The last half of paragraph F explains how natural resources are dependent on each other and how effects in one of them can cause problems to the others. Take a look at these lines in paragraph F, “ . .. . Grass and other vegetation acts as a sponge which absorbs rainfall both in the plants and in the ground. Removal of the vegetation means that rainfall runs off the top of the land, accelerating erosion instead of being gradually fed into the soil to renew ground water.”
So, the answer is: viii (Interdependence of natural resources)
Question 34: Paragraph G
For this question, we should have a look at paragraph no. 5 which talks about the change in obtaining dogs.
Paragraph G details the possibility of what will happen in the coming future due to global warming.
Take a look at these lines, “ . .. . . it is likely that, as sea levels rise, countries in low-lying coastal areas will be hit by seawater penetration of ground water.”
Also, “ .. . . Other countries will experience changes in rainfall . .. .”
So, the answer is: iii (What the future holds)
Questions 35-40: Summary completion
[In this kind of question candidates are given a summary for one, two or three paragraphs with some fill in the blanks questions. Candidates need to find out the related paragraphs by correctly studying the keywords form the questions. Then, they should follow the steps of finding answers for fill in the gaps.]
Question 35: Individual water usage is rising dramatically as people living in industrialised countries become increasingly ____________.
Keywords for this answer: individual water usage, rising dramatically, people, industrial countries, become, increasingly,
Paragraph A has the answer. Take a look at lines 1-3, “Per capita water usage has been on an upward trend for many years. As countries industrialise and their citizens become more prosperous, their individual water usage increases rapidly.”
Here, increase rapidly = rising dramatically, citizens = people living in industrialised countries,
So, the answer is: prosperous
Question 36: As well as increased consumption per capita, the growing demand for fresh water is due to a bigger global ___________than in the past.
Keywords for this answer: increased consumption, per capita, growing demand, fresh water, due to, bigger, global, than, past,
In the same paragraph (paragraph A), the writer also says, “ . .. . Annual per capita water withdrawals in the USA, for example, are about 1,700 cubic metres, four times the level in China and fifty times the level in Ethiopia. In the 21st century, the world’s limited supply of renewable fresh water is having to meet demands of both larger total population and increased per capita consumption. .. .. . .”
Here, Annual per capita water withdrawals in the USA . .. . four times the level in China and fifty times the level in Ethiopia = increased consumption per capita, larger = bigger,
So, the answer is: population
Question 37: There are examples of industries in some rich countries that have reduced their consumption rates through price increases, the application of ___________ and recycling.
Keywords for this answer: examples, industries, some rich countries, reduced, consumption rates, through, price increases, application of, recycling,
In paragraph C, have a close look at the first lines, “In rich countries, water consumption has gradually been slowed down by price increases and the use of modern technology and recycling.”
Here, water consumption has gradually been slowed down = reduced their consumption rates, use = application,
So, the answer is: (modern) technology
Question 38: Other ways of protecting supplies are to reduce water loss resulting from __________ in the supply systems and to find ways of utilising used water.
Keywords for this answer: other ways, protecting supplies, reduce water loss, resulting from, in the supply systems,
The answer lies in paragraph E where the writer talks about some solutions to reduced waste of water. In the beginning the writer says, “One way to cut back on water consumption is simply to prevent leaks. … .. .”
Here, cut back on water consumption = reduce water loss, prevent = protecting,
Then, in lines 8-9, the author says, “ . .. The modern approach, however, is to see used water as a resource which can be put to good use – . .. .”
Here, used water as a resource which can be put to good use = ways of utilising used water,
So, the answer is: leaks
Question 39: Longer term measures, such as improved environmental __________ would protect the ecosystem and ensure the replenishment of ground water for future generations.
Keywords for this answer: longer term measures, improved, environmental, protect, ecosystem, ensure, replacement, ground water, future generations,
The answer is in paragraph F. In the beginning, the writer explains, “Another way of conserving water resources involves better management of the environment generally.”
So, the answer is: management
Question 40: Without such measures, future supplies are uncertain, especially when global warming is expected to interfere with rainfall patterns and to worsen the ____________ already suffered by many countries today.
Keywords for this answer: without such patterns, future supplies, uncertain, especially, global warming, expected to interfere, rainfall patterns, worsen, already suffered by, many countries today,
In paragraph G, the writer explains, “Global warming is bound to affect rainfall patterns, though there is considerable disagreement about its precise effects. But it is likely that, as sea levels rise, countries in low-lying coastal areas will be hit by seawater penetration of groundwater. Other countries will experience changes in rainfall which could have a major impact on agricultural yield – either for better or for worse. In broad terms, it is thought that rainfall zones will shift northwards, adding to the water deficit in Africa, the Middle East and the Mediterranean – a grim prospect indeed.”
Here, affect = interfere, adding to = worsen, Africa, the Middle East and the Mediterranean = suffered by many countries today,
So, the answer is: water deficit
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