IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 6 Test 4 Reading passage 2; Do literate women make better mothers?; with best solutions and best explanations

IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 6 Test 4 Reading passage 2; Do literate women make better mothers?; with best solutions and best explanations

This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 6 Reading Test 4 Reading Passage 2 entitledDo literate women make better mothers?’. This is a targeted post for IELTS candidates who have big problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer without much trouble. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will assist you in this respect.

IELTS Cambridge 6 Test 4: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 2: Questions 14-26

The headline of the passage: Do literate women make better mothers?

Questions 14-18: Completing summary with list of words

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to complete a summary with a list of words taken from the passage. Candidates must write the correct letter (not the words) as the answers. Keywords and synonyms are important to find answers correctly. Generally, this type of question maintains a sequence. Find the keywords in the passage and you are most likely to find the answers.]

Question no. 14: The Nicaraguan National Literacy Crusade aimed to teach large numbers of illiterate ___________ to read and write.

Keywords for the question: Nicaraguan National Literacy Crusade, aimed to teach, large numbers of illiterate, read and write,

Let’s scan the passage to find the KEYPHRASE ‘Nicaraguan National Literacy Crusade’. Paragraph no. 3 talks about this KEYPHRASE. So, there’s a high possibility to find the answers from here.

The writer says here, “In 1979, the government of Nicaragua established a number of social programmes, including a National Literacy Crusade. By 1985, about 300,000 illiterate adults from all over the country, many of whom had never attended primary school, had learnt how to read, write and use numbers.”

Here, adults = men and women,

So, the answer is: B (men and women)

Question no. 15: Public health experts have known for many years that there is a connection between child health and _________.

Keywords for the question: Public health experts, known, many years, connection between, child health and,  

The answer can be found in paragraph no. 1 (this happens rarely as this type of question generally follows a sequence). Anyway, in lines 1-2 the author of the text says, “Children in developing countries are healthier and more likely to survive past the age of five when their mothers can read and write. Experts in public health accepted this idea decades ago, . . . .”

Here, when their mothers can read and write = maternal literacy, Experts in public health = Public health experts, accepted this idea decades ago = have known for many years,

So, the answer is: F (maternal literacy)

Question no. 16: However, it has not previously been known whether these two factors were directly linked or not. This question has been investigated by __________ in Nicaragua.

 Keywords for the question: not previously been known, two factors, directly linked or not, This question, investigated by, Nicaragua,

First, take a look at lines 2-3 of paragraph no. 1, “. . .. . but until now no one has been able to show that a woman’s ability to read in itself improves her children’s chances of survival.”

Here, until now no one has been able to show = it has not previously been known, a woman’s ability to read & improves her children’s chances of survival = these two factors were directly linked,

Then, in paragraph no. 4, the writer mentions about the investigation, “… researchers from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, the Central American Institute of Health in Nicaragua, the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua and the Costa Rican Institute of Health interviewed nearly 3,000 women, some of whom had learnt to read as children, some during the literacy crusade and some who had never learnt at all.”

Here, the research institutes are from a number of countries.

So, the answer is: C (an international research team)

Questions no. 17 & 18: As a result, factors such as 17. _________ and attitudes to children have been eliminated, and it has been shown that 18. __________ can in itself improve infant health and survival.

Keywords for the question: as a result, factors such as, attitudes to children, eliminated, shown that, itself improve, infant health and survival,

The answers can be found in paragraph no. 2. First, the writer says in the beginning, “. .. . . the fact that a woman has had an education may simply indicate her family’s wealth or that it values its children more highly. Now a long-term study carried out in Nicaragua has eliminated these factors .. . .. .”  

Then, the writer says, “. . .. . that teaching reading to poor adult women, who would otherwise have remained illiterate, has a direct effect on their children’s health and survival.”

Here, teaching reading to poor adult women = maternal literacy,

So, the answers are:

  1. J (family wealth)
  2. F (maternal literacy)

Questions 19-24: YES, NO, NOT GIVEN

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES
The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text- NO
The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN

[TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question no. 19: About a thousand of the women interviewed by the researchers had learnt to read when they were children.

Keywords for the question: about a thousand, women, interviewed by, researchers, learnt to read, when, children,   

The mention of women interviewed by researchers can be found in paragraph no. 4. The writer says here, “. . .. . interviewed nearly 3,000 women, some of whom had learnt to read as children, …  .”  

However, the number of women who learnt to read when being children is not mentioned.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question no. 20: Before the National Literacy Crusade, illiterate women had approximately the same levels of infant mortality as those who had learnt to read in primary school.

Keywords for the question: Before, National Literacy Crusade, illiterate women, approximately the same levels of infant mortality, as, who had learnt to read, primary school,

Have a look at these lines in paragraph no. 5, “ . .. . In the late 1970s, the infant mortality rate for the children of illiterate mothers was around 110 deaths per thousand live births. At this point in their lives, those mothers who later went on to learn to read had a similar level of child mortality (105/1000). For women educated in primary school, however, the infant mortality rate was significantly lower, at 80 per thousand.”

So, the lines confirm that the levels of infant mortality were different for illiterate (110 per thousand) and literate women (80 per thousand); they weren’t the same.

So, the answer is: NO

Question no. 21: Before and after the National Literacy Crusade, the child mortality rate for the illiterate women stayed at about 110 deaths for each thousand live births.

Keywords for the question: before and after, National Literacy Crusade, child mortality rate, illiterate women, stayed, about 110 deaths, each thousand live births,  

To find the answer to this question we have to read from two paragraphs. First, take a look at paragraph no. 5, “ .. . . . . In the late 1970s, the infant mortality rate for the children of illiterate mothers was around 110 deaths per thousand live births. . .. .”

Here, In the late 1970s = before,

Then, in paragraph no. 6, the author says, “In 1985, after the National Literacy Crusade had ended, .. .. .. the infant mortality figures for those who remained illiterate and for those educated in primary school remained more or less unchanged.”

Here, remained more or less unchanged = stayed at about 110 deaths for each thousand live births,

The lines are a clear match to the question.

So, the answer is: YES

Question no. 22: The women who had learnt to read through the National Literacy Crusade showed the greatest change in infant mortality levels.

Keywords for the question: women, had learnt to read, through National Literacy Crusade, showed, greatest change, infant mortality levels,  

Take a look at lines 3-5 of paragraph no.6, “ . .. . . For those women who learnt to read through the campaign, the infant mortality rate was 84 per thousand, an impressive 21 points lower than for those women who were still illiterate. … .. .”

This is a clear match with the question as literate women showed a great decreasing change of 21 points in infant mortality rate.

So, the answer is: YES

Question no. 23: The women who had learnt to read through the National Literacy Crusade had the lowest rates of child mortality.

Keywords for the question: women, who, learnt to read, through, National Literacy Crusade, had, lowest rates, child mortality,  

In the sixth paragraph, the writer says, “ . .. .For those women who learnt to read through the campaign, the infant mortality rate was 84 per thousand . .. . ”

Again, in the fifth paragraph, the writer says that the rate before the Crusade was ‘80 per thousand’ for women educated in primary school. Then, in the sixth paragraph, the writer says that it “remained more or less unchanged”

So, it can be understood from those points that the women who got educated in primary school had the lower rates of child mortality than who had learnt to read through the National Literacy Crusade. Therefore, the question contradicts the information in the passage.

So, the answer is: NO

Question no. 24: After the National Literacy Crusade, the children of the women who remained illiterate were found to be severely malnourished.

Keywords for the question: After, National Literacy Crusade, children of the women, remained illiterate, found, severely malnourished,

In the last line of paragraph no.6 the writer mentions, “ . .. . . . The children of the newly-literate mothers were also better nourished than those of women who could not read.”

However, we find no information which indicates that those children were severely malnourished.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Questions 25-26: Multiple choice questions

[This type of question asks you to choose a suitable answer from the options using the knowledge you gained from the passage. Generally, this question is found as the last question so you should not worry much about it. Finding all the answers for previous questions gives you a good idea about the title.]

Question no. 25 & 26: Which TWO important implications drawn from the Nicaraguan study are mentioned by the writer of the passage?

Keywords for the question: TWO, important implications, drawn from, Nicaraguan study, mentioned, by the writer,

A. It is better to educate mature women than young girls.
B. Similar campaigns in other countries would be equally successful.
C. The effects of maternal literacy programmes can be seen very quickly.
D. Improving child health can quickly affect a country’s economy.
E. Money spent on female education will improve child health.

Let’s have a look at paragraphs no. 8, 9 and 10 as they talk about the Nicaraguan study.

In paragraph no. 8, the writer says in lines 2-4, “ . .. . there is increasing evidence that female education, at any age, is “an important health intervention in its own right’.” So, women of all ages can be educated. Therefore, option A is wrong.

In paragraph no. 10, in the beginning, the writer says, “Cleland warns that the Nicaraguan crusade was special in many ways, and similar campaigns elsewhere might not work as well.” Therefore, option B is wrong.

In paragraph no. 9, the writer says, “We’ve known for a long time that maternal education is important,’ says John Cleland of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. ‘But we thought that even if we started educating girls today, we’d have to wait a generation for the pay off. The Nicaraguan study suggests we may be able to bypass that.” Here, we may be able to bypass that = the effects of maternal literacy programmes can be seen really soon. Therefore, option C is correct.

In paragraph no. 8 the writer says in the end, “ .. . .. The results of the study lend support to the World Bank’s recommendation that education budgets in developing countries should be increased, not just to help their economies, but also to improve child health.”

There is no information about the link between improving child health and a country’s economy. Therefore, option D is wrong and option E is correct.

So, the answers are: (in either order)

C (The effects of maternal literacy programmes can be seen very quickly.)

E (Money spent on female education will improve child health.)

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 6 AC Test 4 Reading Passage 1

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 6 AC Test 4 Reading Passage 3

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