This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 5 Reading Test 3 Reading Passage 2 entitled ‘Disappearing Delta’. This is a targeted post for IELTS candidates who have big problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer without much trouble. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will assist you in this respect.
IELTS Cambridge 5 Test 3: AC Reading Module
Reading Passage 2: Questions 14-26
The headline of the passage: Disappearing Delta
Questions 14-17: List of headings
[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph that will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.
TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly and don’t stop until you finish each sentence.]
Question no. 14: Paragraph B
The first part of paragraph B guides us to the answer to this question. The writer says here, “Up to now, people have blamed this loss of delta land on the two large dams at Aswan in the south of Egypt, which hold back virtually all of the sediment that used to flow down the river. Before the dams were built, the Nile flowed freely, . .. . .”
Here, the highlighted points suggest that the two large dams built in Aswan have interrupted the natural flow of sediment in the river Nile.
So, the answer is: iv (Interrupting a natural process)
Question no. 15: Paragraph D
Paragraph D explains the effects of irrigation in the river Nile on sedimentation as the writer says here, “Once north of Cairo, most of the Nile water is diverted into more than 10,000 kilometres of irrigation canals . . .. . The water in the irrigation canals is still or very slow-moving and thus cannot carry sediment’, Stanley explains. The sediment sinks to the bottom of the canals and then is added to fields by farmers or pumped with the water into the four large freshwater lagoons that are located near the outer edges of the delta. .. ..”
So, the answer is: i (Effects of irrigation on sedimentation)
Question no. 16: Paragraph E
Paragraph E explains how pollutants found in the river water are becoming a threat to food production. The writer says here, “ .. . . by the time the sediment has come to rest in the fields and lagoons, it is laden with municipal, industrial and agricultural waste from the Cairo region, which is home to more than 40 million people. ‘Pollutants are building up faster and faster,’ says Stanley.”
Again, take a look at these lines from the same paragraph, “ . .. . Since that time the concentration of mercury has increased significantly. Lead from engines that use leaded fuels and from other industrial sources has also increased dramatically. These poisons can easily enter the food chain, affecting the productivity of fishing and farming. .. .”
Here, productivity of fishing and farming = food production,
So, the answer is: v (The threat of food production)
Question no. 17: Paragraph F
The last few lines of paragraph F indicate the answer. The writer says here, “ .. . .. He says, however, that in the long term an alternative process such as desalination may have to be used to increase the amount of water available. ‘In my view, Egypt must devise a way to have more water running through the river and the delta,’ says Stanley. Easier said than done in a desert region with a rapidly growing population.”
Here, Easier said than done = the solutions may take quite a long time and efforts,
So, the answer is: viii (Looking at the long-term impact)
Questions 19-24: YES, NO, NOT GIVEN:
[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:
The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES
The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text- NO
The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN
TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]
Question no. 18: Coastal erosion occurred along Egypt’s Mediterranean coast before the building of the Aswan dams.
Keywords for the question: coastal erosion, occurred, Egypt’s Mediterranean coast, before, building, Aswan dams,
The answer can is found in the last few lines of paragraph A, “ . .. In the past, land scoured away from the coastline by the currents of the Mediterranean Sea used to be replaced by sediment brought down to the delta by the River Nile, but this is no longer happening.”
Here, land scoured away from the coastline = coastal erosion occurred,
So, the answer is: YES
Question no. 19: Some people predicted that the Aswan dams would cause land loss before they were built.
Keywords for the question: some people, predicted, Aswan dams, would cause, land loss, before, built,
The first lines of paragraph B may confuse you here, as the writer says here, “Up to now, people have blamed this loss of delta land on the two large dams at Aswan in the south of Egypt, .. ..”
We should understand here, the lines suggest that people now blame the Aswan dams for the land loss. However, the question asks us whether people predicted it before the construction of Aswan dams. We don’t find any such information here.
So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN
Question no. 20: The Aswan dams were built to increase the fertility of the Nile delta.
Keywords for the question: Aswan dams, built, to increase, fertility, Nile delta,
The reasons for building Aswan dams are provided in lines 15-19 of paragraph B, “ . .. . . the Aswan dams were constructed in the 20th century to provide electricity and irrigation, and to protect the huge population centre of Cairo and its surrounding areas from annual flooding and drought, . .. .”
These lines suggest that the Aswan dams were not built to improve the fertility of the Nile delta.
So, the answer is: NO
Question no. 21: Stanley found that the levels of sediment in the river water in Cairo were relatively high.
Keywords for the question: Stanley, found, levels of sediments, river water, Cairo, relatively high,
Take a close look at the last few lines of paragraph C where Stanley compares the level of sediment in the Nile delta in Cairo and the Mediterranean, “ . .. ‘There is still a lot of sediment coming into the delta, but virtually no sediment comes out into the Mediterranean to replenish the coastline. So this sediment must be trapped on the delta itself.”
Here, the delta = the Nile delta in Cairo, a lot of sediment = relatively high level of sediment,
So, the answer is: YES
Question no. 22: Sediment in the irrigation canals on the Nile delta causes flooding.
Keywords for the question: sediment, irrigation canals, Nile delta, causes, flooding,
Paragraph D talks about the impact of irrigation on sedimentation in the delta and paragraph E deals with the threats of pollutants in food production. No cause of flooding is found here.
So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN
Question no. 23: Water is pumped from the irrigation canals into the lagoons.
Keywords for the question: water, pumped, irrigation canals, into, lagoons,
The answer can be found in paragraph D, in lines 7-11, “ . .. . The sediment sinks to the bottom of the canals and then is added to fields by farmers or pumped with the water into the four large freshwater lagoons that are located near the outer edges of the delta. .. .. .”
The lines suggest that water is pumped from the irrigation canals into the four lagoons.
So, the answer is: YES
Questions 24-26: Completing summary with a list of words
[In this type of question, candidates are asked to complete a summary with a list of words taken from the passage. Candidates must write the correct letter (not the words) as the answers. Keywords and synonyms are important to find answers correctly. Generally, this type of question maintains a sequence. Find the keywords in the passage and you are most likely to find the answers.]
Question no. 24: In addition to the problem of coastal erosion, there has been a marked increase in the level of _________ contained in the silt deposited in the Nile delta.
Keywords for the question: in addition to, problem, coastal erosion, marked increase, level of, silt, deposited, Nile delta,
The point of coastal erosion is discussed in paragraph A and B. Then, paragraph C and D mainly discusses the point of sedimentation process. After that, in paragraph E, the writer talks in details about the problem created by waste and pollutants, “ . . . But by the time the sediment has come to rest in the fields and lagoons it is laden with municipal, industrial and agricultural waste from the Cairo region, which is home to more than 40 million people. ‘Pollutants are building up faster and faster,’ says Stanley.
Here, building up faster and faster = marked increase,
So, the answer is: F (pollutants)
Questions no. 25 & 26: To deal with this, Stanley suggests the use of 25. _________ in the short term, and increasing the amount of water available through 26. ________ in the longer term.
Keywords for the question: deal with, Stanley suggests, use of, short term, increasing, amount of water, available through, longer term,
In paragraph F, we find the short-term and long-term solutions to the problem. In lines 9-11, the writer states, “ . .. . In the immediate future, Stanley believes that one solution would be to make artificial floods to flush out the delta waterways, in the same way that natural floods did before the construction of the dams. .. ..”
Here, In the immediate future = short-term solution,
Then, right after that, the writer says again, “ . .. He says, however, that in the long term an alternative process such as desalination may have to be used to increase the amount of water available. .. ..”
Here, in the long term = long-term solution,
So, the answers are:
- A (artificial floods)
- B (desalination)