This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 5 Reading Test 2 Reading Passage 3 titled ‘The Birth of Scientific English’. This is a targeted post for IELTS candidates who have big problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer without much trouble. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will assist you in this respect.
IELTS Cambridge 5 Test 2: AC Reading Module
Reading Passage 3: Questions 27-40
The headline of the passage: The Birth of Scientific English
Questions 28-34: Summary completion
[In this kind of questions candidates are given a summary for one, two, or three paragraphs with some fill-in-the-blanks questions. Candidates need to find out the related paragraphs by correctly studying the keywords from the questions. Then, they should follow the steps of finding answers to fill in the gaps.]
Question no. 28: In Europe, modem science emerged at the same time as the nation state. At first, the scientific language of choice remained _________.
Keywords for the question: Europe, modern science, emerged, same time, nation state, at first, scientific language of choice, remained,
The final lines of the first paragraph have the answer to this question. Here, the writer of the passage says in lines 12-18, “ . . .. .. Given the prominence of scientific English today, it may seem surprising that no one really knew how to write science in English before the 17th century. Before that, Latin was regarded as the lingua franca1 for European intellectuals.”
Here, no one really knew how to write science in English before the 17th century = modem science emerged at the same time as the nation state, Before that = At first, lingua franca1= scientific language of choice, (here, the number 1 with lingua franca means there’s a footnote at the end of the page to explain the phrase)
So, the answer is: Latin
Question no. 29: It allowed scientists to communicate with other socially privileged thinkers while protecting their work from unwanted exploitation. Sometimes the desire to protect ideas seems to have been stronger than the desire to communicate them, particularly in the case of mathematicians and __________.
Keywords for the question: allowed scientists, communicate, other socially privileged thinkers, protecting, work, unwanted exploitation, desire, protect ideas, seems to have been stronger, than, desire to communicate them, particularly, mathematicians,
The answer can be found in paragraph no. 6 where the author says, “A second reason for writing in Latin may, perversely, have been a concern for secrecy. Open publication had dangers in putting into the public domain preliminary ideas which had not yet been fully exploited by their ‘author’. This growing concern about intellectual property rights was a feature of the period – it reflected both the humanist notion of the individual, rational scientist who invents and discovers through private intellectual labour, and the growing connection between original science and commercial exploitation. There was something of a social distinction between ‘scholars and gentlemen’ who understood Latin, and men of trade who lacked a classical education. And in the mid-17th century it was common practice for mathematicians to keep their discoveries and proofs secret, by writing them in cipher, in obscure languages, or in private messages deposited in a sealed box with the Royal Society. Some scientists might have felt more comfortable with Latin precisely because its audience, though in national, was socially restricted. Doctors clung the most keenly to Latin as an ‘insider language’.”
Here, keep their discoveries and proofs secret = the desire to protect ideas,
So, the answer is: doctors
Questions no. 30 & 31: In Britain, moreover, scientists worried that English had neither the 30. ____________ nor the 31. ____________ to express their ideas.
Keywords for the question: thinking, numbers, concepts, separate from, physical objects,
The answers to these questions are in paragraph no.7. Let’s have a look, “A third reason why the writing of original science in English was delayed may have been to do with the linguistic inadequacy of English in the early modern period. English was not well equipped to deal with the scientific argument. First, it lacked the necessary technical vocabulary. Second, it lacked the grammatical resources required to represent the world in an objective and impersonal way, and to discuss the relations, such as cause and effect, that might hold between complex and hypothetical entities.”
Here, First, it lacked & Second, it lacked = English had neither . .. .. nor . ….. ,
So, the answers are: (in any order)
Question no. 32: This situation only changed after 1660 when scientists associated with the _____________ set about developing English.
Keywords for the question: earliest tribes, sufficiency, more important, than, quantity,
Let’s have a look at paragraph no. 8. Here, the writer says in the first few lines, “Fortunately, several members of the Royal Society possessed an interest in language and became engaged in various linguistic projects. Although a proposal in 1664 to establish a committee for improving the English language came to little, the society’s members did a great deal to foster the publication of science in English and to encourage the development of a suitable writing style. Many members of the Royal Society also published monographs in English. . . .. .”
Here, in 1664 = after 1600, improving the English language = developing English,
So, the answer is: Royal Society
Questions no. 33 & 34: An early scientific journal fostered a new kind of writing based on short descriptions of specific experiments. Although English was then overtaken by 33. ___________, it developed again in the 19th century as a direct result of the 34. ____________.
Keywords for the question: Indigenous Tasmanians, used, only four terms, indicate, numbers of objects,
The answer can be traced in the final paragraph as the writer explains here, “The 17th century was thus a formative period in the establishment of scientific English. In the following century, much of this momentum was lost as German established itself as the leading European language of science. It is estimated that by the end of the 18th century 401 German scientific journals had been established as opposed to 96 in France and 50 in England. However, in the 19th century, scientific English again enjoyed substantial lexical growth as the industrial revolution created the need for new technical vocabulary, and new, specialised, professional societies were instituted to promote and publish in the new disciplines.”
Here, much of this momentum was lost .. . .. . German established itself as the leading European language of science = English was overtaken by German, scientific English again enjoyed substantial lexical growth = it developed again,
So, the answers are:
- industrial revolution
Questions 35-37: TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN
[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:
The statement in the question agrees with the information in the passage – TRUE
The statement in the question contradicts the information in the passage – FALSE
If there is no information on this – NOT GIVEN
For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]
Question no. 35: There was strong competition between scientists in Renaissance Europe.
Keywords for the question: strong competition, scientists, Renaissance Europe,
In the second paragraph, we find information about Renaissance in Europe and competition, “The European Renaissance (c. 14th-16th century) is sometimes called the ‘revival of learning’, a time of renewed interest in the ‘lost knowledge’ of classical times. At the same time, however, scholars also began to test and extend this knowledge. The emergent nation states of Europe developed competitive interests in world exploration and the development of trade. . .. .. “
Here, we find information about competitive interest in world exploration. However, there is NO INFORMATION about strong competition between scientists.
So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN
Question no. 36: The most important scientific development of the Renaissance period was the discovery of magnetism.
Keywords for the question: most important scientific development, Renaissance period, discovery of magnetism,
The answer can be found at the later part of paragraph no. 2 where the writer says, “ . .. .. . Such expansion, which was to take the English language west to America and east to India, was supported by scientific developments such as the discovery of magnetism (and hence the invention of the compass), improvements in cartography and – perhaps the most important scientific revolution of them all – the new theories of astronomy and the movement of the Earth in relation to the planets and stars, developed by Copernicus (1473-1543).”
Here, perhaps the most important scientific revolution of them all = The most important scientific development of the Renaissance period,
So, the most important scientific development of the Renaissance period was the new theories of astronomy and the movement of the Earth in relation to the planets and stars; NOT the discovery of magnetism.
So, the answer is: FALSE
Question no. 37: In 17th-century Britain, leading thinkers combined their interest in science with an interest in how to express ideas.
Keywords for the question: 17th century Britain, leading thinkers, combined, interest, science, an interest, how to express ideas,
The answer can be found in paragraph no. 10 and at the beginning of the final paragraph. So, our answer should be here. Let’s have a look.
“In 1665 a new scientific journal, Philosophical Transactions, was inaugurated. Perhaps the first international English-language scientific journal, it encouraged a new genre of scientific writing, that of short, focused accounts of particular experiments.
The 17th century was thus a formative period in the establishment of scientific English. ….. …”
Here, it encouraged a new genre of scientific writing, that of short, focused accounts of particular experiments = leading thinkers combined their interests in science by writing in the new scientific journal (an interest in how to express ideas).
So, the answer is: TRUE
Questions 38-40: Completing table: with NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS
[In this type of questions candidates need to fill in the gaps in a table with NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS. Skimming and scanning, both reading skills are essential for this question-type.]
|Science written in the first half of the 17th century|
|Type of science||Original||38 _____________|
|Target audience||International scholars||40 ____________, but socially wider|
Question no. 38:
Keywords for the question: English, type of science,
The answer can be found in paragraph no. 4. The writer says here, “Across Europe similar academies and societies arose, creating new national traditions of science. In the initial stages of the scientific revolution, most publications in the national languages were popular works, encyclopaedias, educational textbooks and translations. Original science was not done in English until the second half of the 17th century.
Here, national languages = English,
These lines suggest that although Original science used Latin in the first half of the 17th Century, popular science works were published in English. Original science used English in the second half of the 17th Century.
So, the answer is: popular
Question no. 39:
Keywords for the question: Latin, original, examples,
At the end of paragraph no. 4, the writer says, “ . ……. .. For example, Newton published his mathematical treatise, known as the Principia, in Latin, but published his later work on the properties of light – Opticks – in English.”
Here, For example = examples, his mathematical treatise = original work,
So, the answer is: Principia/ the Principia/ Newton’s Principia/ mathematical treatise
Question no. 40:
Keywords for the question: English, Encyclopedias, target audience, socially wider,
In paragraph no. 5, the author mentions, “ . .. . Latin was suitable for an international audience of scholars, whereas English reached a socially wider, but more local, audience. Hence, popular science was written in English.”
So, the answer is: local/ more local/ local audience