IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 5 Test 1 Reading passage 2; Nature or Nurture?; with best solutions and best explanations

IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 5 Test 1 Reading passage 2; Nature or Nurture?; with best solutions and best explanations

This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 5 Reading Test 1 Reading Passage 2 entitledNature or Nurture’. This is an aimed post for IELTS candidates who have great problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer quite easily. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a gradual process, and this post will assist you in this respect.

IELTS Cambridge 5 Test 1: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 2: Questions 14-26

The headline of the passage: Nature or Nurture?

Questions 14-19: Identifying information

[This question asks you to find information from the passage and write the number of the paragraph (A, B, C or D … .. ) in the answer sheet. Now, if the question is given in the very first part of the question set, I’d request you not to answer them. It’s mainly because this question will not follow any sequence, and so it will surely kill your time. Rather, you should answer all the other questions first. And just like List of Headings, only read the first two lines or last two lines of the expected paragraph initially. If you find the answers, you need not read the middle part. If you don’t find answers yet, you can skim the middle part of the paragraph. Keywords will be a useful matter here.]

Question no. 14: a biological explanation of the teacher-subjects’ behaviour

Keywords for the question: biological explanation, teacher-subjects’ behaviour,  

At the beginning of paragraph F, the writer provides a biological explanation of the behaviour displayed by the teacher-subjects, “One’s first inclination might be to argue that there must be some sort of built-in animal aggression instinct that was activated by the experiment, and that Milgram’s teacher- subjects were just following a genetic need to discharge this pent-up primal urge onto the pupil by administering the electrical shock. .. ..”

Here, some sort of built-in animal aggression instinct & teacher- subjects were just following a genetic need = biological explanation about the teacher-subjects’ behaviour,

So, the answer is: F

Question no. 15: the explanation Milgram gave the teacher-subjects for the experiment

Keywords for the question: explanation, Milgram gave, teacher-subjects, for, experiment,  

The last half of paragraph A gives us the answer, “. .. .. .  Specifically, Milgram told each volunteer ‘teacher-subject’ that the experiment was in the noble cause of education, and was designed to test whether or not punishing pupils for their mistakes would have a positive effect on the pupils’ ability to learn.”

Here, Milgram told each volunteer ‘teacher-subject’ = the explanation Milgram gave the teacher-subjects,

So, the answer is: A

Question no. 16: the identity of the pupils

Keywords for the question: identity, pupils,

In paragraph B, we can find the identity of the pupils in line no. 6, “ . .. . The supposed ‘pupil‘ was in reality an actor hired by Milgram . . .. .”

Here, an actor = the identity of the pupils,  

So, the answer is: B

Question no. 17: the expected statistical outcome

Keywords for the question: expected, statistical outcome,

The answer can be found in paragraph D. Take a close look at the last half of the paragraph, “ . .. . . The overwhelming consensus was that virtually all the teacher-subjects would refuse to obey the experimenter. The psychiatrists felt that ‘most subjects would not go beyond 150 volts’ and they further anticipated that only four per cent would go up to 300 volts. Furthermore, they thought that only a lunatic fringe of about one in 1.000 would give the highest shock of 450 volts.”

Here, consensus = expected statistical outcome,

Then the writer provides some figures about what people would do regarding providing electric shocks to test subjects.

So, the answer is: D

Question no. 18: the general aim of sociobiological study

Keywords for the question: general aim, sociobiological study,

The last few lines of paragraph I provides the answer, “ . .. Put another way, sociobiology is concerned with elucidating the biological basis of all behaviour.”

Here, is concerned with = general aim,

So, the answer is: I

Question no. 19: the way Milgram persuaded the teacher-subjects to continue

Keywords for the question: way, Milgram, persuaded, teacher-subjects, continue,  

The answer lies in paragraph C. The writer says in lines 3-7, “ . .. .. . Many of the teacher-subjects balked at administering the higher levels of punishment, and turned to Milgram with questioning locks and/or complaints about continuing the experiment. In these situations, Milgram calmly explained that the teacher-subject was to ignore the pupil’s cries for mercy and carry on with the experiment. .. .. .”

Here, Milgram calmly explained = Milgram persuaded the teacher-subjects calmly,

So, the answer is: C

Questions 20-22: Multiple choice questions

[This type of question asks you to choose a suitable answer from the options using the knowledge you gained from the passage. Generally, this question is found as the last question so you should not worry much about it. Finding all the answers for previous questions gives you a good idea about the title.]

Question no. 20: The teacher-subjects were told that they were testing whether –

Keywords for the question: teacher-subjects, were told, testing whether,

We can find the answer in lines 5-7 of paragraph A, “ . .. .. Milgram told each volunteer ‘teacher-subject’ that the experiment was in the noble cause of education, and was designed to test whether or not punishing pupils for their mistakes would have a positive effect on the pupils’ ability to learn.”

Here, punishing pupils for their mistakes = punishment, positive effect = helps, ability to learn = learning,

So, the answer is: B (punishment helps learning.)

Question no. 21: The teacher-subjects were instructed to –

Keywords for the question: teacher-subjects, were instructed,

The answer can be found in the last lines of paragraph B, “ . .. . Milgram told the teacher-subject to ignore the reactions of the pupil, and to administer whatever level of shock was called for, as per the rule governing the experimental situation of the moment.”

Here, to administer whatever level of shock was called for = give punishment, as per the rule = according to a rule,

So, the answer is: D (give punishment according to a rule.)

Question no. 22: Before the experiment took place the psychiatrists –

Keywords for the question: before, experiment took place, psychiatrists,

To find the answer to this question we have to look at two paragraphs. First, take a look at paragraph D where we find the mention of psychiatrists, “Prior to carrying out the experiment, Milgram explained his idea to a group of 39 psychiatrists and asked them to predict the average percentage of people in an ordinary population who would be willing to administer the highest shock level of 450 volts. The overwhelming consensus was that virtually all the teacher-subjects would refuse to obey the experimenter. . .. . .”

These lines suggest that the psychiatrists predicted that no teacher-subjects were willing to obey the experimenter.

However, in the following paragraph (paragraph E), the writer says at the beginning, “What were the actual results? Well, over 60 per cent of the teacher-subjects continued to obey Milgram up to the 450-volt limit! . .. .”

These lines suggest that a big number of the teacher-subjects actually continued to obey the experimenter (Milgram).

This means the psychiatrists underestimated the teacher-subjects’ willingness to comply with experimental procedure.

So, the answer is: C (underestimated the teacher-subjects’ willingness to comply with experimental procedure.)

Questions 23-26: TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question agrees with the information in the passage – TRUE
The statement in the question contradicts with the information in the passage – FALSE
If there is no information on this – NOT GIVEN

For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question no. 23: Several of the subjects were psychology students at Yale University.

Keywords for the question: several, subjects, psychology students, Yale University,   

In paragraph A, the writer talks about the teacher-subjects in lines 5-6, “ . .. Specifically, Milgram told each volunteer ‘teacher-subject’ that the experiment was in the noble cause of education, . .. . .”

Here, we have no clue about the identity of the teacher-subjects.  

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question no. 24: Some people may believe that the teacher-subjects’ behaviour could be explained as a positive survival mechanism.

Keywords for the question: some people, may believe, teacher-subjects’ behaviour, could be explained, as, positive, survival mechanism,

To find the answer to this question, we have to travel all the way to paragraph F where we find about a claim made by someone, “ . .. . A modern hard-core sociobiologist might even go so far as to claim that this aggressive instinct evolved as an advantageous trait, having been of survival value to our ancestors in their struggle against the hardships of life on the plains and in the caves, ultimately finding its way into our genetic make-up as a remnant of our ancient animal ways.”

Here, aggressive instinct = teacher-subjects’ behaviour, an advantageous trait = a positive survival mechanism,

So, the answer is: TRUE

Question no. 25: In a sociological explanation, personal values are more powerful than authority.

Keywords for the question: sociological explanation, personal values, more powerful, than authority,

Have a close look at these lines from paragraph H, “Thus, in this explanation the subject merges his unique personality and personal and moral code with that of larger institutional structures, surrendering individual properties like loyalty, self-sacrifice and discipline to the service of malevolent systems of authority.”

Here, merges = as equal as, unique personality and personal and moral code = personal values,

So, the answer is: FALSE

Question no. 26: Milgram’s experiment solves an important question in sociobiology.

Keywords for the question: Milgram’s experiment, solves, important question, sociobiology,    

The answer can be found in paragraph I in the first few lines, “Here we have two radically different explanations for why so many teacher-subjects were willing to forgo their sense of personal responsibility for the sake of an institutional authority figure. The problem for biologists, psychologists and anthropologists is to sort out which of these two polar explanations is more plausible. . .. ..”

This means biologists, psychologists and anthropologists are not sure about which explanation is more plausible or reasonable.

So, Milgram’s experiment did not solve the question in sociobiology.

So, the answer is: FALSE

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 5 AC Test 1 Reading Passage 1

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 5 AC Test 1 Reading Passage 3

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