IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 4 Test 4 Reading passage 3; The Problem of Scarce Resources; with best solutions and best explanations

IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 4 Test 4 Reading passage 3; The Problem of Scarce Resources; with best solutions and best explanations

This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 4 Reading Test 4 Reading Passage 3 which is titled ‘The Problem of Scarce Resources’. This is a targeted post for IELTS candidates who have big problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer without much trouble. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will assist you in this respect.

IELTS Cambridge 4 Test 4: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 3: Questions 28-40

The title of the passage: The Problem of Scarce Resources

Questions 28-31: List of headings

[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph that will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.

Tips to answer this question: Don’t read the list of headings first. Have a quick look at the questions, and go straight to the first question and start reading the paragraph associated with it. Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly, and don’t stop until you finish each sentence.]

Question no. 28: Section A

In Section A, the author of the text says in lines 1-4, “The problem of how health-care resources should be allocated or apportioned, so that they are distributed in both, the most just and most efficient way, is not a new one. Every health system in an economically developed society is faced with the need to decide (either formally or informally). .. ..”

Here, faced with the need to decide = a problem, Every health system in an economically developed society = every economically developed country,

So, the answer is: iv (A problem shared by every economically developed country)

Question no. 29: Section C

The first half of Section C has the answer to this question. Here, the writer talks about ‘basic human rights’ and their connection to health-care. Let’s take a look at lines 4-7, “ . .. . Like education, political and legal processes and institutions, public order, communication, transport and money supply, health-care came to be seen as one of the fundamental social facilities necessary for people to exercise their other rights as autonomous human beings. .. .. .”

Here, Like = the connection, one of the fundamental social facilities = one of the human rights, their other rights = other human rights,

So, the answer is: i (The connection between health-care and other human rights)

Question no. 30: Section D

In Section D, lines 4-7 say, “ . . .. It is also accepted that this right generates an obligation or duty for the state to ensure that adequate health-care resources are provided out of the public purse. The state has no obligation to provide a health-care system itself, but to ensure that such a system is provided. .. .. .”

Here, an obligation or duty for the state = the role of the state, ensure = role,

So, the answer is: iii (The role of the state in health-care)

Question no. 31: Section E

Take a look at the first few lines of paragraph no. 1 in Section E. The author of the text says here in lines 2-4, “ .. .. . people were demanding that their fundamental right to health-care be satisfied by the state. The second set of more specific changes that have led to the present concern about the distribution of health-care resources .. .. .”

Here, people were demanding & more specific changes = recent changes,

Then, in lines 1-3 of paragraph no. 2, the author says, “As a consequence, during the 1980s a kind of doomsday scenario (analogous to similar doomsday extrapolations about energy needs and fossil fuels or about population increases) was projected by health administrators, economists and politicians. .. ..”

Here, As a consequence = the impact,

So, the answer is: v (The impact of recent change)

Questions 32-35: Classifying groups

[This type of question asks candidates to classify information from the given reading text. Candidates are given some groups from the text, and a list of options, which are listed as A, B, C etc. They must match the correct groups with the correct options.

N.B.: This question type doesn’t follow any sequence. So, they should be answered after all other questions in the passage.]

Question no. 32: the realisation that the resources of the national health systems were limited

Keywords for the question: realisation, resources, national health systems, were limited,

Question no. 33: a sharp rise in the cost of health-care 

Keywords for the question: sharp rise, cost, health-care,  

For these two questions, we need to go Section E.

Here, in the first paragraph, the writer says, “Just at the time when it became obvious that health-care resources could not possibly meet the demands being made upon them, people were demanding that their fundamental right to health-care be satisfied by the state. The second set of more specific changes that have led to the present concern about the n of health-care resources stems from the dramatic rise in health costs in most OECD countries, accompanied by large-scale demographic and social changes which have meant, to take one example, that elderly people are now major (and relatively very expensive) consumers of health-care resources. Thus in OECD countries as a whole, health costs increased from 3.8% of GDP in 1960 to 7% of GDP in 1980

Here, Just at the time = between 1950 and 1980 (as indicated in the last line of this paragraph), it became obvious = the realisation, could not possibly meet the demands = were limited,

Then, at the end of the paragraph,

health costs increased from 3.8% of GDP in 1960 to 7% of GDP = a sharp rise in the cost of health-care ,

So, the answers are:

  1. B (between 1950 and 1980)
  2. B (between 1950 and 1980)

Question no. 34: a belief that all the health-care resources the community needed would be produced by economic growth

Keywords for the question: belief, all the health-care resources, community, needed, would be produced, economic growth,      

The writer says in lines 4-7 of Section B, “ .. . . . Thus, in the 1950s and 1960s, there emerged an awareness in Western societies that resources for the provision of fossil fuel energy were finite and exhaustible and that the capacity of nature or the environment to sustain economic development and population was also finite. . .. ..” And then, in the last few lines, “ . .. it was assumed without question that all the basic health needs of any community could be satisfied, at least in principle; the ‘invisible hand’ of economic progress would provide.”

Here, in the 1950s and 1960s = between 1945 and 1950,

there emerged an awareness & it was assumed without question that = a belief,

Western societies = the community, 

the ‘invisible hand’ of economic progress would provide = would be produced by economic growth,

So, the answer is: A (between 1945 and 1950)

Question no. 35: an acceptance of the role of the state in guaranteeing the provision of health-care

Keywords for the question: acceptance, role of the state, guaranteeing, provision of health-care,     

In Section D, take a look at these lines at the beginning, “ . .. . by the late 1970s, it was recognised in most societies that people have a right to health-care (though there has been considerable resistance in the United States to the idea that there is a formal right to health-care). .. . ..”

Here, by the late 1970s = between 1950 and 1980, it was recognised = an acceptance, people have a right to health-care = the role of the state to guarantee the provision of health-care,

So, the answer is: B (between 1950 and 1980)

Questions 36-40: YES, NO, NOT GIVEN

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES
The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text- NO
The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN]

[TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question no. 36: Personal liberty and independence have never been regarded as directly linked to health-care.  

Keywords for the question: personal liberty, independence, never been regarded, directly linked, health-care, 

Let’s have a close look at Section C. Here, the author of the passage says in lines 7-9, “ . .. . People are not in a position to exercise personal liberty and to be self-determining if they are poverty-stricken, or deprived of basic education, or do not live within a context of law and order. .. .. .”

Here, People are not in a position = NO direct link to health-care, to be self-determining = independence,

The lines suggest that personal liberty and independence have never been considered as directly linked to health-care.

So, the answer is: NO    

Question no. 37: Health-care came to be seen as a right at about the same time that the limits of health-care resources became evident.

Keywords for the question: health-care, came to be seen, a right, about the same time, limits of health-care resources, became evident,

The answer to this question can be traced in Section E, in the very first lines, “Just at the time when it became obvious that health-care resources could not possibly meet the demands being made upon them, people were demanding that their fundamental right to health-care be satisfied by the state. .. .”

Here, Just at the time = at about the same time, became obvious = became evident, health-care resources could not possibly meet the demands = the limits of health-care resources, people were demanding that their fundamental right to health-care = Health-care came to be seen as a right,

So, the answer is: YES  

Question no. 38: In OECD countries population changes have had an impact on health-care costs in recent years.

Keywords for the question: OECD countries, population changes, had an impact, health-care costs, recent years,       

Again, in Section E, lines 3-6 say, “ . . .. The second set of more specific changes that have led to the present concern about the distribution of health-care resources stems from the dramatic rise in health costs in most OECD countries, accompanied by large-scale demographic and social changes . . … ..”

Here, dramatic rise in health costs in most OECD countries = an impact on health-care costs, large-scale demographic = population changes,

So, the answer is: YES  

Question no. 39: OECD governments have consistently underestimated the level of health-care provision needed.

Keywords for the question: OECD governments, consistently, underestimated, level of health-care provision, needed,    

The information CANNOT BE FOUND in this passage (in Section E).

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN  

Question no. 40: In most economically developed countries the elderly will have to make special provision for their health-care in the future.

Keywords for the question: most economically developed countries, elderly, will have to make, special provision, their health-care, future,

The information CANNOT BE FOUND in this passage (in Section E).

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Click here for the solutions to Cambridge 4 Test 4 Reading Passage 1 

Click here for the solutions to Cambridge 4 Test 4 Reading Passage 2

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