This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 4 Reading Test 3 Reading Passage 2 titled ‘Volcanoes – earth-shattering news’. This is a targeted post for IELTS candidates who have big problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer without much trouble. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will assist you in this respect.
IELTS Cambridge 4 Test 3: AC Reading Module
Reading Passage 2: Questions 14-26
The headline of the passage: Volcanoes – earth-shattering news
Questions 14-17: List of headings
[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph that will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.
TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly and don’t stop until you finish each sentence.]
Question no. 14: Section A
Section A contains 4 paragraphs. In the second paragraph, the writer explains in lines 2-5, “ . .. . Vulcanism, the name given to volcanic processes, really has shaped the world. Eruptions have rifted continents, raised mountain chains, constructed islands and shaped the topography of the earth. The entire ocean floor has a basement of volcanic basalt.”
Here, volcanic processes, really has shaped the world = the features of our planet is a result of volcanic processes,
So, the answer is: iii (Volcanoes and the features of our planet)
Question no. 15: Section B
Section B has two paragraphs. In the second paragraph the author of the text explains why and how volcanoes erupt. “ . .. . The flow, thought to be in the form of convection currents, is powerful enough to fracture the ‘eggshell’ of the crust into plates, and keep them bumping and grinding against each other, or even overlapping, at the rate of a few centimetres a year. These fracture zones, where the collisions occur, are where earthquakes happen. And, very often, volcanoes.”
These highlighted lines explain why volcanoes erupt.
So, the answer is: i (Causes of volcanic eruption)
Question no. 16: Section C
In section C, the writer says in the first paragraph, “ . .. . Every eruption is different, but put at its simplest, where there are weaknesses, rocks deep in the mantle, heated to 1,350°C, will start to expand and rise.”
Then, in the next three paragraphs, the writer explains different types of volcanic eruption.
The first type of eruption – “Sometimes it is slow: . .. .”
The second type of eruption – “Sometimes – as in Northern Ireland, Wales and the Karoo in South Africa – the magma rose faster, .. .”
Another type – “Sometimes the magma moves very swiftly indeed. .. .”
One other type – “The biggest eruptions are deep on the mid-ocean floor, .. .”
So, the answer is: iv (Different types of volcanic eruption)
Question no. 17: Section D
Section D starts with this sentence, “But volcanoes are not very predictable. .. .”
Here, not very predictable = unpredictability,
So, the answer is: vi (The unpredictability of volcanic eruptions)
Questions 18-21: Short answer to open questions (NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS)
[In this kind of question candidates have to answer some questions, only with some conditions like NO MORE THAN THREE/TWO WORDS and/or A NUMBER or, ONE WORD ONLY. Each question has keywords which will lead to the answer. This question type generally follows a sequence.]
Question no. 18: What are the sections of the earth’s crust, often associated with volcanic activity, called?
Keywords for the question: sections of the earth’s crust, , often associated with volcanic activity, called
The answer can be traced in Section C, in paragraph no. 4. Here, the writer says in lines 4-5, “ . .. .. and you can see the rough outlines of what are called tectonic plates – the plates which make up the earth’s crust and mantle. … .”
Here, make up the earth’s crust and mantle = the earth’s crust, often associated with volcanic activity,
So, the answer is: (the) (tectonic) plates
Question no. 19: What is the name given to molten rock from the mantle?
Keywords for the question: name given to, molten rock, mantle,
The answer lies in Section C, paragraph no. 2. The writer says here in the beginning, “vast bubbles of magma – molten rock from the mantle – . .. .”
Here, – molten rock from the mantle – is an explanation of the word right before.
So, the answer is: magma
Question no. 20: What is the earthquake zone on the Pacific Ocean called?
Keywords for the question: earthquake zone, the Pacific Ocean, called,
The answer to this question can be found in paragraph no. 4 of Section C. Here, in lines 5-6, the writer says, “ . . . The most dramatic of these is the Pacific ‘ring of fire’ where there have been the most violent explosions – .. . .”
Here, Pacific = the Pacific Ocean, where there have been the most violent explosions = the earthquake zone,
So, the answer is: ring of fire
Question no. 21: For how many years did Mount Pinatubo remain inactive?
Keywords for the question: how many years, Mount Pinatubo, remain inactive,
Take a close look at the last few lines of paragraph no. 1 in Section D, “ . .. In the case of Mount Pinatubo, this took 600 years. .. . .”
Here, the line suggests that Mount Pinatubo remained inactive for 600 years/ it took 600 years for Mount Pinatubo to become active.
So, the answer is: (for) 600 (years)
Questions 22-26: Summary completion with NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS:
[In this kind of questions candidates are given a summary for one, two or three paragraphs with some fill in the blanks questions. Candidates need to find out the related paragraphs by correctly studying the keywords from the questions. Then, they should follow the steps of finding answers for fill in the gaps.]
Question no. 22: Volcanic eruptions have shaped the earth’s land surface. They may also have produced the world’s atmosphere and __________.
Keywords for the question: Volcanic eruptions, shaped the earth’s land surface, may also have produced, world’s atmosphere,
In Section A, paragraph no. 3 says, “Volcanoes have not only made the continents, they are also thought to have made the world’s first stable atmosphere and provided all the water for the oceans, rivers and ice-caps. .. .. .”
Here, made the continents = shaped the earth’s surface, also thought to have made = may also have produced, world’s first stable atmosphere = world’s atmosphere,
So, the answer is: (the) water
Question no. 23: Eruptions occur when molten rocks from the earth’s mantle rise and expand. When they become liquid, they move more quickly through cracks in the surface. There are different types of eruption. Sometimes the _________ moves slowly and forms outcrops of granite on the earth’s surface. When it moves more quickly it may flow out in thick horizontal sheets.
Keywords for the question: different types of eruptions, sometimes, moves slowly, forms outcrops, granite, earth’s surface,
The different types of volcanic eruption have discussed in section C. Here, in the second paragraph, the writer says in the first lines, “Sometimes it is slow: vast bubbles of magma – molten rock from the mantle – inch towards the surface, cooling slowly, . .. .”
Here, Sometimes it is slow = sometimes the magma/ molten rock moves slowly,
So, the answer is: magma/ molten rock
Question no. 24: Examples of this type of eruption can be found in Northern Ireland, Wales, South Africa and _________.
Keywords for the question: examples, this type of eruption, Northern Ireland, Wales, South Africa,
The previous question’s answer (question no. 23) talks about the slow volcanic eruption (Section C, beginning of paragraph no. 2).
Then, in lines 2-5, the writer gives example to such eruptions in countries like Northern Ireland, Wales, South Africa. After that, the writer says in lines 6-8, the author says, “ .. . .. In the Deccan plateau in western India, there are more than two million cubic kilometres of lava, some of it 2,400 metres thick, formed over 500,000 years of slurping eruption.”
So, the answer is: (western) India
Questions no. 25: A third type of eruption occurs when the lava emerges very quickly and _________ violently.
Keywords for the question: third type of eruption, occurs when, lava, emerges, very quickly, violently,
In Section C, the author of the text provides description of a third type of volcanic eruption in paragraph no. 3. Here, the author says, “Sometimes the magma moves very swiftly indeed. It does not have time to cool as it surges upwards. The gases trapped inside the boiling rock expand suddenly, the lava glows with heat, it begins to froth, and it explodes with tremendous force. .. ..”
Here, the magma moves very swiftly = the lava emerges very quickly, with tremendous force = violently,
So, the answer is: explodes
Questions no. 26: This happens because the magma moves so suddenly that ________ are emitted.
Keywords for the question: this happens because, magma, moves so suddenly, are emitted,
In section C, take a look again at lines 2-3 of paragraph no. 3, “ . .. . The gases trapped inside the boiling rock expand suddenly, the lava glows with heat, it begins to froth, and it explodes with tremendous force. .. ..”
Here, The gases trapped . … expand suddenly . … it explodes = the gases .. . . are emitted,
So, the answer is: (the) gases / trapped gases