IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 4 Test 2 Reading passage 1; Lost of Words; with best solutions and best explanations

IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 4 Test 2 Reading passage 1; Lost of Words; with best solutions and best explanations

This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 4 Reading Test 2 Reading Passage 1 titledLost of Words’. This is a targeted post for IELTS candidates who have big problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer without much trouble. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will assist you in this respect.

IELTS Cambridge 4 Test 2: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 1: Questions 1-13

The headline of the passage: Lost of Words

Questions 1-4: Summary completion:

[In this kind of question candidates are given a summary for one, two or three paragraphs with some fill in the blanks questions. Candidates need to find out the related paragraphs by correctly studying the keywords from the questions. Then, they should follow the steps of finding answers to fill in the gaps.]

Question no. 1: There are currently approximately 6,800 languages in the world. This great variety of languages came about largely as a result of geographical _________.

Keywords for the question: approximately 6,800 languages, great variety of languages, largely, as a result, geographical,   

The answer can be found in paragraph no. 2 and 3.

First, in paragraph no. 2 the author of the text says, “ .. .. Half of the world’s 6,800 languages are likely to vanish within two generations –  .. . .. .. ‘At the moment, we are heading for about three or four languages dominating the world,’ . .. …. ‘It’s a mass extinction, and whether we will ever rebound from this loss is difficult to know.’ .”

Then, in paragraph no. 3, the author says again, “Isolation breeds linguistic diversity: as a result, the world is peppered with languages spoken by only a few people. . .. ..”

Here, breeds = came about largely as a result of, great variety of languages = linguistic diversity,

So, the answer is: isolation

Question no. 2: But in today’s world, factors such as government initiatives and __________ are contributing to a huge decrease in the number of languages.

Keywords for the question: today’s world, government initiatives, contributing, huge decrease, numbers of languages,

The answer can be found in paragraph no. 5. The author says here, “The change is not voluntary. Quite often, governments try to kill off a minority language by banning its use in public or discouraging its use in schools all to promote national unity. . .. .. Salikoko Mufwene, who chairs the Linguistics department at the University of Chicago, argues that the deadliest weapon is not government policy but economic globalisation. ‘Native Americans have not lost pride in their language, but they have had to adapt to socio-economic pressures,’ he says .. .. ..”

Here, the author says that there are two factors that contribute to decreasing the number of languages. One is ‘government policy’ and the other is ‘economic globalisation’ or ‘socio-economic pressures’. 

So, the answer is: (economic) globalization / globalisation / socio-economic pressures

Question no. 3: One factor which may help to ensure that some endangered languages do not die out completely is people’s increasing appreciation of their _________. 

Keywords for the question: one factor, may help, ensure, endangered languages, do not die out completely, people’s increasing appreciation of,

In paragraph no. 7, the writer says, “So despite linguists’ best efforts, many languages will disappear over the next century. But a growing interest in cultural identity may prevent the direst predictions from coming true. . . . .”

Here, a growing interest = people’s increasing appreciation, may prevent the direst predictions from coming true = may help to ensure that some endangered languages do not die out completely,

So, the answer is: cultural identity

Question no. 4: This has been encouraged through programmes of language classes for children and through ‘apprentice’ schemes, in which the endangered language is used as the medium of instruction to teach people a ___________. Some speakers of endangered languages have even produced writing systems in order to help secure the survival of their mother tongue.

Keywords for the question: encouraged, programmes of language classes, children, ‘apprentice’ schemes, endangered language, used, as, medium of instruction, teach people,  

The answer can be found in lines 14-29 of paragraph no. 7 as the author writes here, “ .. . .. .  In New Zealand, classes for children have slowed the erosion of Maori and rekindled interest in the language. A similar approach in Hawaii has produced about 8,000 new speakers of Polynesian languages in the past few years. In California, ‘apprentice’ programmes have provided life support to several indigenous languages. Volunteer ‘apprentices’ pair up with one of the last living speakers of a Native American tongue to learn a traditional skill such as basket weaving, with instruction exclusively in the endangered language. .. . . ..”

Here, ‘apprentice’ programmes = ‘apprentice’ schemes, Native American tongue to learn = the endangered language is used as the medium of instruction to teach people,

So, the answer is: traditional skill

Questions 5-9: Matching statements with a list of people

[In this type of question, candidates need to relate statements that are given by or links to people in the passage. The rules for finding answers to this sort of question are simple. Just find the name of the person and read around it carefully. Then, give a quick look to check whether there is another statement or idea provided by the same person in the text. If there is, check the reference carefully and decide your answer. Remember, the questions may not follow any sequential order.]

Question no. 5: Endangered languages cannot be saved unless people learn to speak more than one language.

Keywords for the question: endangered languages, cannot be saved, unless, people learn, speak, more than one language,

The answer can be found in lines 5-6 of paragraph no. 7, in the comments made by Doug Whalen, “ .. . .. ‘The key to fostering diversity is for people to learn their ancestral tongue, as well as the dominant language,’ says Doug Whalen, founder, and president of the Endangered Language Fund in New Haven, Connecticut. ‘Most of these languages will not survive without a large degree of bilingualism,’ he says. . .. . ”

Here, Most of these languages will not survive without a large degree of bilingualism = Endangered languages cannot be saved unless people learn to speak more than one language,

So, the answer is: E (Doug Whalen)

Question no. 6: Saving languages from extinction is not in itself a satisfactory goal.

Keywords for the question: saving languages, from extinction, not, satisfactory goal,

Take a look at the last lines of paragraph no. 7, “ . .. .. But Mufwene says that preventing a language dying out is not the same as giving it new life by using it every day. ‘Preserving a language is more like preserving fruits in a jar,’ he says.”

Here, preventing a language dying out is not the same as giving it new life / Preserving a language is more like preserving fruits in a jar = saving languages from extinction is not in itself a satisfactory goal,

So, the answer is: B (Salikoko Mufwene)

Question no. 7: The way we think may be determined by our language.  

Keywords for the question: the way we think, may be determined, by our language,

Take a look at the last lines of paragraph no. 6, “ .. . . Pagel says, and this could affect our thoughts and perceptions. ‘The patterns and connections we make among various concepts may be structured by the linguistic habits of our community.’”

Here, The patterns and connections we make among various concepts = The way we think, may be structured = may be determined, by the linguistic habits of our community = by our language,

So, the answer is: D (Mark Pagel)

Question no. 8: Young people often reject the established way of life in their community.

Keywords for the question: young people, often reject, established way of life, their community,  

The answer can be found in paragraph no. 4. Look at these lines, “ . .. ..  It begins with a crisis of confidence, when a small community finds itself alongside a larger, wealthier society, says Nicholas Ostler, of Britain’s Foundation for Endangered Languages, in Bath. ‘People lose faith in their culture,’ he says. ‘When the next generation reaches their teens, they might not want to be induced into the old traditions.’”

Here, When the next generation reaches their teens, they might not want to be induced into the old traditions = Young people often reject the established way of life in their community,

So, the answer is: C (Nicholas Ostler)

Question no. 9: A change of language may mean a loss of traditional culture. 

Keywords for the question: a change of language, may mean, loss of traditional culture,

The first lines of paragraph no. 6 give us the answer to this question, “ . . . ..  Language is also intimately bound up with culture, so it may be difficult to preserve one without the other. ‘If a person shifts from Navajo to English, they lose something,’ Mufwene says. .. . .” 

Here, Language is also intimately bound up with culture, so it may be difficult to preserve one without the other = A change of language may mean a loss of traditional culture,

So, the answer is: B (Salikoko Mufwene)

Questions 10-13: TRUE, FALSE, NOT GIVEN

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question agrees with the information in the passage – TRUE
The statement in the question contradicts with the information in the passage – FALSE
If there is no information on this – NOT GIVEN

For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question no. 10: The Navajo language will die out because it currently has too few speakers.

Keywords for the question: Navajo language, will die out, because, currently has, too few speakers,  

In the first paragraph of the text, the writer says, “In the Native American Navajo nation, which sprawls across four states in the American south-west, the native language is dying. Most of its speakers are middle-aged or elderly. Although many students take classes in Navajo, the schools are run in English. Street signs, supermarket goods and even their own newspaper are all in English. Not surprisingly, linguists doubt that any native speakers of Navajo will remain in a hundred years’ time.”

Here, the writer suggests that the Navajo language will die out NOT because of few speakers, but because of reliance in English.

Also, in lines 8-10 of paragraph no. 3, the writer says, “ . ..  Navajo is considered endangered despite having 150,000 speakers. . . .”

So, the answer is: NO

Question no. 11: A large number of native speakers fails to guarantee the survival of a language.

Keywords for the question: A large number of native speakers, fails to guarantee, survival of a language,

Take a look at in lines 8-10 of paragraph no. 3 where the writer says, “ . ..  Navajo is considered endangered despite having 150,000 speakers. What makes a language endangered is not just the number of speakers, but how old they are. . . .”

Here, the writer conveys the message that a large number of speakers (150,000 Navajo speakers) is not a guarantee for a language’s survival.

So, the answer is: YES

Question no. 12: National governments could do more to protect endangered languages.    

Keywords for the question: national governments, could do more, protect endangered languages,  

We find a reference to ‘governments’ in paragraph no. 5, “The change is not always voluntary. Quite often, governments try to kill off a minority language by banning its use in public or discouraging its use in schools, all to promote national unity. . ..”

However, there is NO MENTION of any suggestion for national governments to do more to protect endangered languages.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question no. 13:  The loss of linguistic diversity is inevitable.

Keywords for the question: loss of linguistic diversity, inevitable,  

In paragraph no. 7, look at the first few lines and last few lines, “So despite linguists’ best efforts, many languages will disappear over the next century. . .. . . .. . . . …  ‘Most of these languages will not survive without a large degree of bilingualism .. . .   . . .. .   …  But Mufwene says that preventing a language dying out is not the same as giving it new life by using it every day. ‘Preserving a language is more like preserving fruits in a jar,’ he says.”

Here, many languages will disappear over the next century / Most of these languages will not survive without a large degree of bilingualism = loss of linguistic diversity is inevitable,

So, the answer is: YES

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 4 Test 2 Reading Passage 2

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