IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 3 Test 2 Reading passage 2; No title; with best solutions and best explanations

This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 3 Reading Test 2 Reading Passage 2 about ‘environmental management’. This is a targeted post for IELTS candidates who have big problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer without much trouble. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will assist you in this respect.

IELTS Cambridge 3 Test 2: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 2: Questions 14-28

This passage has no title

Questions 14-18: List of headings

[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C, and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph that will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.

Tips to answer this question: Don’t read the list of headings first. Have a quick look at the questions, and go straight to the first question and start reading the paragraph associated with it. Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly, and don’t stop until you finish each sentence.]

Question no. 14: Section A   

In Section A, the first lines say, “The role of governments in environmental management is difficult but inescapable. … .”

Here, the lines suggest that the role of governments to manage the environment is a difficult job but governments cannot deny it.

Then, in the next lines, we find how different governments manage the environment.

So, the answer is: v (Governments and management of the environment)

Question no. 15: Section B  

In lines 1-3 of section B, the author of the text explains, “No activity affects more of the earth’s surface than farming. It shapes a third of the planet’s land area, not counting Antarctica, and the proportion is rising. World food output per head has risen by 4 per cent between the 1970s and 1980s .. … ..”

Here, the lines clearly show the relationship between farming and food output.

So, the answer is: vii (Farming and food output)

Question no. 16: Section C

The last lines of section B indicate to modern farming methods, “ . … . Higher yields have been achieved by increased irrigation, better crop breeding, and a doubling in the use of pesticides and chemical fertilisers in the 1970s and 1980s.”

Then, here in section C the writer talks about the effect or impact of this modern farming. The writer says in the beginning, “All these activities may have damaging environmental impacts. .. ..”

Here, All these activities = modern farming (as mentioned in the final lines of section B),

So, the answer is: ii (The environmental impact of modern farming)

Question no. 17: Section D

Lines 1-3 in section D say, “Government policies have frequently compounded the environmental damage that farming can cause. In the rich countries, subsidies for growing crops and price supports for farm output drive up the price of land. .. . .”

These lines clearly show the effects of government policy taken in rich countries.

So, the answer is: iv (The effects of government policy in rich countries)

Question no. 18: Section F

The first lines of section F say, “A result of the Uruguay Round of world trade negotiations is likely to be a reduction of 36 per cent in the average levels of farm subsidies paid by the rich countries in 1986-1990. .. .”

Here, the Uruguay Round of world trade negotiations = the new international trade agreement, likely to be a reduction = probable effects,

So, the answer is: i (The probable effects of the new international trade agreement)

Questions 19-23: Completing table

[In this type of question candidates need to fill in the gaps from a list that is given with the table. Skimming and scanning, both reading skills are essential for this question-type.]

Agricultural practice Environmental damage that may result
·         19 ·         Deforestation
·         20 ·         Degraded water supply
·         More intensive farming ·         21
·         Expansion of monoculture ·         22

Question no. 19:

Keywords for the question: agricultural practice, deforestation,

In section C, the writer explains in lines 1-2, “ . .. . . All these activities may have damaging environmental impacts. For example, land clearing for agriculture is the largest single cause of deforestation; .. .. .”

Here, may have damaging environmental impacts = Environmental damage that may result, land clearing for agriculture = Clearing land for cultivation,

So, the answer is: G (Clearing land for cultivation)  

Question no. 20:

Keywords for the question: agricultural practice, degraded water supply,

Again, in section C, lines 2-3 say, “ . .. . chemical fertilisers and pesticides may contaminate water supplies; .. …”

Here, chemical fertilisers and pesticides = Increased use of chemical inputs, contaminate water supplies = degraded water supply,

So, the answer is: C (Increased use of chemical inputs)

Question no. 21:

Keywords for the question: more intensive farming, environmental damage, may result,  

Again, in Section C, lines 3-4 say, “ . .. . .. more intensive farming and the abandonment of fallow periods tend to exacerbate soil erosion; … … .”

So, the answer is: F (Soil erosion)

Question no. 22:

Keywords for the question: expansion of monoculture, environmental damage, may result, 

Once more, take a look at lines 4-7 of Section C, “ . . .. . and the spread of mono-Culture and use of high-yielding varieties of crops have been accompanied by the disappearance of old varieties of food plants which might have provided some insurance against pests or diseases in future. .. . ..”

Here, the spread of mono-Culture = expansion of monoculture, disappearance of old varieties of food plants = Disappearance of old plant varieties,

So, the answer is: B (Disappearance of old plant varieties)   

Questions 23-27: Multiple choice questions

[This type of question asks you to choose a suitable answer from the options using the knowledge you gained from the passage. Generally, this question is set found as the last question set in most passages so you should not worry much about it. Finding all the answers for previous questions gives you a good idea about these questions.]

Question no. 23: Research completed in 1982 found that in the United States soil erosion –

Keywords for the question: research completed in 1982, found, United States, soil erosion,

In lines 8-10 of Section C, the author of the text mentions, “ .. .. .. The United States, where the most careful measurements have been done, discovered in 1982 that about one-fifth of its farmland is losing topsoil at a rate likely to diminish the soil’s productivity. .. .. .”

Here, about one-fifth = 20 percent, losing topsoil = soil erosion, likely to diminish the soil’s productivity = causing significant damage,

So, the answer is: C (was causing significant damage to 20 percent of farmland)    

Question no. 24: By the mid-1980s, farmers in Denmark –

Keywords for the question: by, mid-1980s, farmers, Denmark,

In Section D, in the first paragraph, line no. 6 says, “ . .. . . Fertiliser use doubled in Denmark in the period 1960-1985 .. .. …”

Here, Fertiliser use doubled in Denmark = Denmark used twice as much fertilizer, 1960-1985 = By the mid-1980s … .. .. as they had in1960

So, the answer is: B (used twice as much fertiliser as they had in 1960)  

Question no. 25: Which one of the following increased in New Zealand after 1984?

Keywords for the question: increased, New Zealand, after 1984,  

In section D, in the second paragraph, lines 3-7 say, “ . . .. . A study of the environmental effects, conducted in 1993, found that the end of fertiliser subsidies had been followed by a fall in fertiliser use (a fall compounded by the decline in world commodity prices, which cut farm incomes). The removal of subsidies also stopped land-clearing and over-stocking, which in the past had been the principal causes of erosion. Farms began to diversify. ..  .. .”

Here, Farms began to diversify =  farm diversification, in 1993 = after 1984,

So, the answer is: D (farm diversification)   

Question no. 26: The writer refers to some rich countries as being ‘less enlightened’ than New Zealand because –

Keywords for the question: some rich countries, being, ‘less enlightened’, than New Zealand, because,  

In section D, in the third paragraph, the first few lines say, “In less enlightened countries, and in the European Union, the trend has been to reduce rather than eliminate subsidies, and to introduce new payments to encourage farmers to treat their land in environmentally friendlier ways, or to leave it follow. It may sound strange but such payments need to be higher than the existing incentives for farmers to grow food crops.

Here, reduce rather than eliminate subsidies = their policies do not recognise the long term benefit of ending subsidies,

So, the answer is: C (their policies do not recognise the long term benefit of ending subsidies)  

Question no. 27: The writer believes that the Uruguay Round agreements on trade will

Keywords for the question: Uruguay Round Agreements, trade, will,  

The first lines of Section F say “A result of the Uruguay Round of world trade negotiations is likely to be a reduction of 36 per cent in the average levels of farm subsidies paid by the rich countries in 1986-1990. ..  … .”

Then, in lines 9-11, the writer says, “ . . .. . And more farmers in poor countries will have the money and the incentive to manage their land in ways that are sustainable in the long run. That is important. .. .. .”

Here, the Uruguay Round of world trade negotiations = the Uruguay Round agreements on trade, likely to = will, in ways that are sustainable in the long run = encourage more sustainable farming in the long term,

So, the answer is: A (encourage more sustainable farming practices in the long term)  

Question no. 28: Multiple choice questions (Identifying the main purpose/aim/title of the passage)

[This type of question asks you to choose a suitable answer from the options that shows the main aim/purpose/title using the knowledge you gained from the passage. Generally, this question is found as the last question so you should not worry much about it. Finding all the answers for previous questions gives you a good idea about the title.]

From the list below choose the most suitable title for Reading Passage 2.

A. Environmental management
B. Increasing the world’s food supply
C.
Soil erosion
D.
Fertilisers and pesticides – the way forward
E.
Farm subsidies

Keywords for the question: most suitable title, 

Clearly, the questions that we answered and our reading of the text indicate that environmental management is the key topic of the text.

We also find other option like B, C, D, E in the text too but they are found in one or two sections. The overall idea is Environmental management.

So, the answer is: A (Environmental management)   

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 3 Test 2 Reading passage 1 

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 3 Test 2 Reading passage 3 

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