IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 2 Test 2 Reading passage 3; What is a Port City?; with best solutions and best explanations

IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 2 Test 2 Reading passage 3; What is a Port City?; with best solutions and best explanations

This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 2 Reading Test 2 Reading Passage 3 titledWhat is a Port City?’. This is a targeted post for IELTS candidates who have big problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer without much trouble. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will assist you in this respect.

IELTS Cambridge 2 Test 2: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 3: Questions 27-40

The headline of the passage: What is a Port City?

Questions 27-32: List of headings

[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph which will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.

Tips to answer this question: Don’t read the list of headings first. Have a quick look at the questions, and go straight to the first question and start reading the paragraph associated with it. Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly, and don’t stop until you finish each sentence.]

Question no. 27: Paragraph B

In paragraph B, the final lines provide us with the answer as the author of the text mentions here, “ . .. . They remain different kinds of places from non-port cities and their port functions account for that difference.”

Here, the lines suggest that port cities remain different from non-port cities because of their characteristics as port cities. This means a port city always remains a port city.

So, the answer is: ii (Once a port city, always a port city)

Question no. 28: Paragraph C

Take a close look at the very first line of paragraph C, “Port functions, more than anything else, make a city cosmopolitan. .. . …”

Here, cosmopolitan = international environment,

So, the answer is: i (A truly international environment)

Question no. 29: Paragraph D

In lines 1-3 of paragraph D, the author says, “Sea ports have been transformed by the advent of powered vessels, whose size and draught have increased. Many formerly important ports have become economically and physically less accessible as a result. .. .. .”

Here, economically and physically less accessible = decline of ports,

The lines suggest that many important ports do not functions as ports now due to the development of powered vessels.

So, the answer is: v (Reasons for the decline of ports)

Question no. 30: Paragraph E

Paragraph E mainly talks about the importance of trade and service industry.

Have a look at lines 1-2 first, “ . .. . . What evidence we have suggests that domestic trade was greater at all periods than external trade. .. .. .”

Then, take a look at lines 6-7, “ . .. . . But each basic worker requires food, housing, clothing and other such services. Estimates of the ratio of basic to service workers range from 1:4 to 1:8.”

So, the answer is: vi (Relative significance of trade and service industry)

Questions 31-34: Matching information with correct cities

[The rules for finding answers to this sort of question are simple. Just find the keywords and read around different cities carefully in the passage. Then, give a quick look to check whether there is another statement or idea provided by the same nationality in the text. If there is, check the reference carefully and decide your answer. Remember, the questions may not follow any sequential order.]

Question no. 31: required considerable harbour development

Keywords for the question: considerable harbour development,   

The final lines in paragraph A says, “ . . . Madras and Colombo are examples of harbours expensively improved by enlarging, dredging and building breakwaters.”

Here, expensively improved by enlarging, dredging and building breakwaters = required considerable harbour development,

So, the answer is: D (Madras and Colombo)

Question no. 32: began as ports but other facilities later dominated

Keywords for the question: began as ports, other facilities, later, dominated,  

Let’s read paragraph B. Here, lines 4-8 say, “ . .. .. Many of the world’s biggest cities, for example, London, New York, Shanghai, Istanbul, Buenos Aires, Tokyo, Jakarta, Calcutta, Philadelphia and San Francisco began as ports – that is, with land-sea exchange as their major function – but they have since grown disproportionately in other respects so that their port functions are no longer dominant. .. . . .”

Here, grown disproportionately in other respects . . .. .. their port functions are no longer dominant = other facilities later dominated,

So, the answer is: C (Istanbul and Jakarta)

Question no. 33: lost their prominence when large ships could not be accommodated

Keywords for the question: lost, prominence, large ships, could not, be accommodated,  

Let’s read paragraph D. Here, the first lines and the last lines say, “Sea ports have been transformed by the advent of powered vessels, whose size and draught have increased. Many formerly important ports have become economically and physically less accessible as a result. . . . .. … …. … .. Examples of these are Charleston, Salem, Bristol, Plymouth, Surat, Galle, Melaka, Soochow, and a long list of earlier prominent port cities in Southeast Asia, Africa and Latin America.”

Here, powered vessels, whose size and draught have increased = large ships, physically less accessible = could not be accommodated,

So, the answer is: F (Plymouth and Melaka)

Question no. 34: maintain their business centres near the port waterfront

Keywords for the question: maintain, business centres, near, port waterfront,   

Let’s read paragraph F. Here, in lines 1-5, the writer mentions, “Cities which began as ports retain the chief commercial and administrative centre of the city close to the waterfront. The centre of New York is in lower Manhattan between two river mouths, the City of London is on the Thames, Shanghai along the Bund. This proximity to water is also true of Boston, Philadelphia, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Singapore, Bangkok, Hong Kong and Yokohama, . . . .”

Here, chief commercial and administrative centre of the city close to the waterfront maintain their business centres near the port waterfront,

So, the answer is: G (Singapore and Yokohama)

Questions 35-40: YES, NO, NOT GIVEN

In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES
The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text- NO
The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN

[TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question no. 35: Cities cease to be port cities when other functions dominate.

Keywords for the question: Cities, cease to be, port cities, other functions, dominate,     

In paragraph B, the writer says in lines 4-8, “ . .. . .. Many of the world’s biggest cities, for example,

London, New York, Shanghai, Istanbul, Buenos Aires, Tokyo, Jakarta, Calcutta, Philadelphia and San Francisco began as ports – that is, with land-sea exchange as their major function – but they have since grown disproportionately in other respects so that their port functions are no longer dominant. . .. .. .”

Here, the lines suggest that cities do not cease to be port cities when other functions dominate.  

So, the answer is: NO

Question no. 36: In the past, many port cities did more trade within their own country than with overseas ports.

Keywords for the question: past, many port cities, more trade, within, own country, than, overseas ports,     

In paragraph E, the writer says in lines 2-4, “ . . . .. domestic trade was greater at all periods than external trade. Shanghai, for example, did most of its trade with other Chinese ports and inland cities. Calcutta traded mainly with other parts of India and so on. .. .. .”

Here, domestic trade was greater = many port cities did more trade within their own country, external trade = trade with overseas ports,

So, the answer is: YES

Question no. 37: Most people in a port city are engaged in international trade and finance.

Keywords for the question: most people, port city, engaged in, international trade and finance,    

In paragraph E, in lines 4-5, the writer says, “ . . … .. Most of any city’s population is engaged in providing goods and services for the city itself.

Here, Most of any city’s population = most people in a port city, providing goods and services for the city itself = local trade and finance,

So, the answer is: NO

Question no. 38: Ports attract many subsidiary and independent industries.

Keywords for the question: ports, attract, subsidiary and independent industries,

The answer can be found in paragraph F. The writer says here in lines 3-6, “. . .. Ports take advantage of the need for breaking up the bulk material where water and land transport meet and where loading and unloading costs can be minimised by refining raw materials or turning them into finished goods. The major examples here are oil refining and ore refining, which are commonly located at ports. .. .. . ..”

Here, Ports take advantage of the need = ports attract, oil refining and ore refining = subsidiary and independent industries,

So, the answer is: YES

Question no. 39: Ports have to establish a common language of trade.

Keywords for the question: ports, have to establish, common language of trade,  

There is no mention of establishing a common language of trade in this passage.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question no. 40: Ports often have river connections.

Keywords for the question: often have, river connections,  

In paragraph G, the writer of the text says in the first lines, “Cities which began as ports retain the chief commercial and administrative centre of the city close to the waterfront. The centre of New York is in lower Manhattan between two river mouths, the City of London is on the Thames, Shanghai along the Bund. .. … .”

Here, the lines clearly suggest that ports often have river connections.

So, the answer is: YES  

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 2 Test 2 Reading Passage 1

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 2 Test 2 Reading Passage 2

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IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 2 Test 2 Reading passage 2; text about language barrier; with best solutions and best explanations

IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 2 Test 2 Reading passage 2; text about language barrier; with best solutions and best explanations

This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 2 Reading Test 2 Reading Passage 2 which is about ‘language barrier’. This is a targeted post for IELTS candidates who have big problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading […]

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