IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 2 Test 1 Reading passage 3; CHILDREN’S THINKING; with best solutions and best explanations

IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 2 Test 1 Reading passage 3; CHILDREN’S THINKING; with best solutions and best explanations

This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 2 Reading Test 1 Reading Passage 3 titled ‘CHILDREN’S THINKING’. This is an aimed post for IELTS candidates who have great problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to comprehend every Reading answer quite easily. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a steady process, and this post will help you in this respect.

IELTS Cambridge 2 Test 1: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 3: Questions 28-40

The title of the passage: CHILDREN’S THINKING

Questions 28-35: Classifying descriptions

[This type of question asks candidates to classify information from the given reading text. Candidates are given some statements from the text, and a list of options. They must match the correct statements with the correct options.

N.B.: This question doesn’t follow any sequence. So, they should be answered after all other questions in the passage.]

Question no. 28: _______ is cited as famous in the field of psychology.

Keywords for the question: famous, field of psychology,  

The first lines of the first paragraph say, “One of the most eminent of psychologists, Clark Hull, claimed that .. ….”

Here, One of the most eminent of psychologists = famous in the field of psychology,

So, the answer is: CH (Clark Hull)

Question no. 29: ­­­________ demonstrated that the two-stage experiment involving button-pressing and inserting a marble into a hole poses problems for certain adults as well as children.

Keywords for the question: two-stage experiment, button-pressing, inserting a marble into a hole, problems, certain adults, children,    

The answer lies in paragraph no. 4. Here, the writer of the text explains ‘problems’ with the experiment. Take a look at these lines, “The mystery at first appears to deepen when we learn, from another psychologist, Michael Cole, and his colleagues, that adults in an African culture apparently cannot do the Kendlers’ task either. . . … .”

Here, adults in an African culture apparently cannot do the Kendlers’ task either = poses problems for certain adults,

The previous paragraph also shows that some children faced problems during the experiment.

So, the answer is: MC (Michael Cole and colleagues)

Question no. 30: _________ devised an experiment that investigated deductive reasoning without the use of any marbles.

Keywords for the question: devised an experiment, investigated, deductive reasoning, without, marbles,    

The first lines of paragraph no. 5 say, “Instead of the button-pressing machine, Cole used a locked box and two differently coloured match-boxes, one of which contained a key that would open the box. .. ..”

Here, Instead of the button-pressing machine = without the use of any marbles,

Also this experiment is based on ‘deductive reasoning’ as it tests an existing theory.

So, the answer is: MC (Michael Cole and colleagues)

Question no. 31: _________ appears to have proved that a change in the apparatus dramatically improves the performance of children of certain ages.

Keywords for the question: appears to, proved, change in, apparatus, dramatically improves, performance, children of certain ages,       

Paragraphs 7 and 8 talk about changing apparatus in an experiment led by Simon Hewson. For example, take a look at these lines from paragraph no. 7, “Hewson made two crucial changes. First, he replaced the button-pressing mechanism in the side panels by drawers in these panels which the child could open and shut. .. .. .”

Then, in paragraph no. 9, the first lines say, “The two modifications together produced a jump in success rates from 30 per cent to 90 per cent for five-year-olds and from 35 per cent to 72.5 percent for four-year-olds. ..  .. .”

Here, produced a jump in success rates = dramatically improves the performance, five-year-olds & four-year-olds = children of certain age,

So, the answer is: SH (Simon Hewson)

Question no. 32: __________ used a machine to measure inductive reasoning that replaced button-pressing with drawer-opening.

Keywords for the question: used a machine, measure, inductive reasoning, replaced, button-pressing, drawer-opening,        

Again, take a look at lines 1-5 of paragraph no. 7, “Hewson made two crucial changes. First, he replaced the button-pressing mechanism in the side panels by drawers in these panels which the child could open and shut. .. .. .”

Here, he replaced the button-pressing mechanism = replaced button-pressing with drawer-opening,

So, the answer is: SH (Simon Hewson)

Question no. 33: ________ experimented with things that the subjects might have been expected to encounter in everyday life, rather than with a machine.

Keywords for the question: experimented, things, the subjects, might have been expected to encounter, everyday life, than, with a machine,  

Paragraph no. 5 explains the experiment done by Michael Cole and colleagues. Here, take a look at lines 11-14, “ . … .. Now the subject is dealing not with a strange machine but with familiar meaningful objects; .. .. .”

Here, familiar meaningful objects = expected to encounter in everyday life, dealing not with a strange machine = rather than with a machine,

So, the answer is: MC (Michael Cole and colleagues)

Question no. 34: _______ compared the performance of five-year-olds with college students, using the same apparatus with both sets of subjects.

Keywords for the question: compared, performance, five-years-olds, college students, using, same apparatus, both sets of subjects,  

The answers can be found at the end of paragraph no. 6. Take a look at these lines, “ . .. . . then five-year-old children solve the problem as well as college students did in the Kendlers’ own experiments.”

In the previous lines, the writer talks about using the same apparatus.

So, the answer is: HTK (Howard and Tracey Kendler)

Question no. 35: ________ is cited as having demonstrated that earlier experiments into children’s ability to reason deductively may have led to the wrong conclusions.

Keywords for the question: having demonstrated, earlier experiments, children’s ability, reason deductively, may have led to, wrong conclusions,   

At the beginning of paragraph no. 6, we find the answer to this question. Let’s have a look, “Recent work by Simon Hewson is of great interest here for it shows that, for young children, too, the difficulty lies not in the inferential processes which the task demands, but in certain perplexing features of the apparatus and the procedure. .. .. .”

Here, not in the inferential processes which the task demands = may have led to the wrong conclusion,

So, the answer is: SH (Simon Hewson)

Questions 36-40: YES, NO, NOT GIVEN

In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES
The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text- NO
The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN

[TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question no. 36: Howard and Tracey Kendler studied under Clark Hull.

Keywords for the question: Howard, Tracey Kendler, studied under, Clark Hull,      

The first and second paragraphs talk about Clark Hull and Howard and Tracey Kendler. In the beginning of the second paragraph, the writer says, “Two followers of Clark Hull, Howard and Tracey Kendler, devised a test for children that was explicitly based on Clark Hull’s principles. …  …”

However, these lines DO NOT clarify whether Howard and Tracey Kendler studied under Clark Hull or not.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN  

Question no. 37: The Kendlers trained their subjects separately in the two stages of their experiment, but not in how to integrate the two actions.

Keywords for the question: The Kendlers, trained, subjects, separately, two stages, but not in, how to integrate, two actions,      

The answers can be found in paragraphs no. 2 and 3.

First, take a look at paragraph no. 2. Here, in lines 8-9, “ . . .. The children were trained on each stage separately. .. .. .”

Here, The children were trained = The Kendlers trained their subjects, on each stage separately = separately in the two stages,

Then, in the third paragraph, lines 8-11 say, “ . . . But they did not for the most part ‘integrate’, to use the Kendlers’ terminology.”

So, the answer is: YES

Question no. 38: Michael Cole and his colleagues demonstrated that adult performance on inductive reasoning tasks depends on features of the apparatus and procedure.

Keywords for the question: Michael Cole, colleagues, demonstrated, adult performance, inductive reasoning tasks, depends on, features, apparatus and procedure,      

The answers can be found in the first and final lines of paragraph no. 5.

First, take a look at the first few lines of paragraph no. 5, where the writer says, “Instead of the button-pressing machine, Cole used a locked box and two differently coloured match-boxes, one of which contained a key that would open the box. .. ..”

These lines suggest that Michael Cole and his colleagues changed the apparatus and procedure in their experiments.  

Then, in the final lines of the same paragraph, the writer says, “ … .. . It then turns out that the difficulty of ‘integration’ is greatly reduced.”

This means adult performance on inductive reasoning tasks depends on features of the apparatus and procedure.

So, the answer is: YES

Question no. 39: All Hewson’s experiments used marbles of the same size.

Keywords for the question: all Hewson’s experiments, used, marbles of the same size,      

The answers can be found in lines 3-5 of paragraph no. 8, “ . .. .. How is he to know that any other marble of similar size will do just as well? .. .. .”

Here, similar size = same size, 

So, the answer is: YES

Question no. 40: Hewson’s modifications resulted in a higher success rate for children of all ages.

Keywords for the question: Hewson’s modifications, resulted in, higher success rate, children of all ages,  

Paragraph no. 9 explains the results of Hewson’s modifications in his experiments. Here, take a look at the final lines of the paragraph, “ . . .. no improvement—rather a slight drop in performance – resulted from the change.”

Here, no improvement = there was no improvement in the success rate,

So, the answer is: NO

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 2 AC Test 1 Reading passage 1

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 2 AC Test 1 Reading passage 2

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