IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 2 Test 1 Reading passage 2; Changing our Understanding of Health; with best solutions and best explanations

IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 2 Test 1 Reading passage 2; Changing our Understanding of Health; with best solutions and best explanations

This Academic IELTS Reading post focuses on solutions to IELTS Cambridge 2 Reading Test 1 Reading Passage 2 titledChanging our Understanding of Health’. This is a targeted post for IELTS candidates who have great problems finding out and understanding Reading Answers in the AC module. This post can guide you the best to understand every Reading answer quite easily. Finding out IELTS Reading answers is a gradual process, and this post will assist you in this respect.

IELTS Cambridge 2 Test 1: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 2: Questions 14-27

The title of the passage: Changing our Understanding of Health

Questions 14-18: List of headings

[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph which will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.

Tips to answer this question: Don’t read the list of headings first. Have a quick look at the questions, and go straight to the first question and start reading the paragraph associated with it. Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly, and don’t stop until you finish each sentence.]

Question no. 14: Paragraph B

Paragraph B mainly discusses the definition of health in medical terms. Have a look at these lines,
“ . .. . That is, good health has been connected to the smooth mechanical operation of the body, while ill health has been attributed to a breakdown in this machine. Health in this sense has been defined as the absence of disease or illness and is seen in medical terms. .. .. .”

So, the answer is: viii (Definition of health in medical terms)

Question no. 15: Paragraph C

The final lines of this paragraph give us answer to the question, “ . .. . Health and the person were seen more holistically (mind/body/spirit) and not just in physical terms.”

So, the answer is: ii (Holistic approach to health)

Question no. 16: Paragraph D

The first lines of paragraph D say, “The 1970s was a time of focusing on the prevention of disease and illness by emphasising the importance of the lifestyle and behaviour of the individual. .. .. .”

We also find the term ‘healthy lifestyles’ in lines 7 and 11.

So, the answer is: iv (Healthy lifestyles approach to health)

Question no. 17: Paragraph E

Lines 1-5 in paragraph E say, “During 1980s and 1990s there has been a growing swing away from seeing lifestyle risks as the root cause of poor health. While lifestyle factors still remain important, health is being viewed also in terms of the social, economic and environmental contexts in which people live. This broad approach to health is called the socio-ecological view of health. …  ..”

So, the answer is: ix (Socio-ecological view of health)

Question no. 18: Paragraph F

The first lines of paragraph F say, “At the Ottawa Conference in 1986, a charter was developed which outlined new directions for health promotion based on the socio-ecological view of health. This charter, known as the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, remains as the backbone of health action today… ..”

Then, the following lines talks more about the Charter.  

So, the answer is: vii (Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion)

Questions 19-22: Short answer to open questions (NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS)

[In this kind of questions candidates have to answer some questions, only with some conditions like NO MORE THAN THREE/TWO WORDS and/or A NUMBER or, ONE WORD ONLY. Each question has keywords which will lead to the answer. This question type generally follows a sequence.]

Question no. 19: In which year did the World Health Organisation define health in terms of mental, physical and social well-being?

Keywords for the question: which year, World Health Organization, define, health, mental, physical, social well-being,   

The answer lies in paragraph C, in the first lines, where the writer says, “ . . . . In the late 1940s the World Health Organisation challenged this physically and medically oriented view of health. They stated that ‘health is a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and is not merely the absence of disease’ (WHO, 1946).. .. .. .”

Here, stated = defined,

So, the answer is: 1946

Question no. 20: Which members of society benefited most from the healthy lifestyles approach to health?

Keywords for the question: members of society, benefited most, healthy lifestyles approach,  

In paragraph D, take a look at lines 7-8, “ . . ..  While this individualistic healthy lifestyles approach to health worked for some (the wealthy members of society), .. . ..”

Here, worked = benefited,  

So, the answer is: (the) wealthy (members) (of) (society)  

Question no. 21: Name the three broad areas which relate to people’s health, according to the socioecological view of health.

Keywords for the question: three broad areas, relate to, people’s health, socioecological view, health,

The answer can be found in paragraph D, in lines 2-5, where the author of the text says, “ … … .. While lifestyle factors still remain important, health is being viewed also in terms of the social, economic and environmental contexts in which people live. This broad approach to health is called the socio-ecological view of health. . .. … .”

So, the answer is: social, economic, environmental   

Question no. 22: During which decade were lifestyle risks seen as the major contributors to poor health?

Keywords for the question: which decade, lifestyle risks, seen, major contributors, poor health,  

The answer can be found in paragraph D. The writer says here in the beginning, “The 1970s was a time of focusing on the prevention of disease and illness by emphasising the importance of the lifestyle and behaviour of the individual. Specific behaviours which were seen to increase risk of disease, such as smoking, lack of fitness and unhealthy eating habits, were targeted.. .. . .”

Here, smoking, lack of fitness and unhealthy eating habits = lifestyles risk,

So, the answer is: (the) 1970s   

Questions 23-27: YES, NO, NOT GIVEN

In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:

The statement in the question matches with the claim of the writer in the text- YES
The statement in the question contradicts with the claim of the writer in the text- NO
The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN

[TIPS: For this type of question, you can divide each statement into three independent pieces and make your way through with the answer.]

Question no. 23: Doctors have been instrumental in improving living standards in Western society.

Keywords for the question: doctors, been instrumental, improving, living standards, Western society, 

In paragraphs A and B, we find reference to ‘Western society’. However, we do not find any information about doctors being instrumental in improving living standards in Western society.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Question no. 24: The approach to health during the 1970s included the introduction of health awareness programs.

Keywords for the question: approach to health, 1970s, introduction, health awareness programs,  

The first few lines paragraph D say, “The 1970s was a time of focusing on the prevention of disease and illness by emphasising the importance of the lifestyle and behaviour of the individual. Specific behaviours which were seen to increase risk of disease, such as smoking, lack of fitness and unhealthy eating habits, were targeted. Creating health meant providing not only medical health care, but health promotion programs and policies which would help people maintain healthy behaviours and lifestyles. .. .. .”

Here, health promotion programs and policies = health awareness programs,

So, the answer is: YES

Question no. 25: The socio-ecological view of health recognises that lifestyle habits and the provision of adequate health care are critical factors governing health.

Keywords for the question: socio-ecological view, health, recognises, lifestyle habits, provision, adequate health care, critical factors,  

Paragraph E talks about the socio-ecological view of health.

Here, take a look at lines 14-16, where the writer mentions, “It is clear from this statement that the creation of health is about much more than encouraging healthy individual behaviours and lifestyles and providing appropriate medical care. .. .. .”

Here, healthy individual behaviours and lifestyles = lifestyle habits, appropriate medical care = adequate health care,

Here, the phrase ‘much more than’ indicates negative view.

So, the answer is: NO

Question no. 26: The principles of the Ottawa Charter are considered to be out of date in the 1990s.

Keywords for the question: principles, Ottawa Charter, out of date, 1990s,      

In paragraph F, the writer says in lines 3-4, “ . .. . This charter, known as the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, remains as the backbone of health action today. .. ..”

Here, the backbone of health action today = extremely important now, NOT out of date,

So, the answer is: NO  

Question no. 27: In recent years a number of additional countries have subscribed to the Ottawa Charter.

Keywords for the question: recent years, a number of additional countries, subscribed, Ottawa Charter,        

Paragraph E and F talk about the Ottawa Charter. However, there is no information regarding more countries subscribing to the Charter.

So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 2 AC Test 1 Reading passage 1

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 2 AC Test 1 Reading passage 3

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