This IELTS Reading post deals with a total solution package for IELTS Cambridge 10 Reading Test 1 Passage 2 entitled European Transport System 1990-2010. This is a targeted post for candidates who have big difficulties in finding Reading Answers. This kind of post can direct you the best to understand every Reading answer easily. Finding IELTS Reading answers is a gradual process and I hope this post can help you in this respect. You need to practice the answers using the Cambridge 10 book.
IELTS Cambridge 10 Test 1: AC Reading Module
Reading Passage 1:
The headline of the passage: European Transport System 1990-2010
Questions 14-18: (List of headings)
[To find answers for List of Headings, check the first and (occasionally) the last few lines of each paragraph. Most of the time, the answer is there for you containing some synonymous words, which have a match with the lists of headings. If you cannot find the answers in the first and last few lines, you may need to check the middle of the paragraphs. This we did in other tests too.]
Question 14: Paragraph A
In paragraph A, the author states in lines 2-4 “Although modern information technologies can reduce the demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking and teleservices, the requirement for transport continues to increase.” Also in lines 6-7, the author says, “The number of cars on European Union (EU) roads saw an increase of three million cars each year from 1990 to 2010, … .. . ..” This means that the requirement for vehicles continues to rise.
So, the answer is: viii (The rapid growth of private transport)
Question 15: Paragraph B
In paragraph B, the first sentence gives us the main clue “As far as goods transport is concerned, growth is due to a large extent to changes in the European economy and its system of production.” Right after that, the author also suggests that these changes are the reason of some production sites to be shifted far away from the final assembly plant or away from users, “ –even though the production site is hundreds or even thousands of kilometres away… ..”. These lines means that these changes clearly affect the transport distances.
So, the answer is: iii (Changes affecting the distances goods may be transported)
Question 16: Paragraph C
In paragraph C, some important transport statistics is provided by the author, in some nations which wish to enter the EU, “….candidates for entry to the EU”. The statistics show a clear increase in road transport and a decrease in rail transport.
So, the answer is: xi (Transport trends in the countries awaiting EU admission)
Question 17: Paragraph D
In paragraph D, after the first line “A new imperative – sustainable development- offers an opportunity for adapting the EU’s common transport policy.. .. ”, we find the word objective. And in the last line we find the time needed to implement the objective “… in 30 years’ time.”
- Objective = goal
- In 30 years’ time = long-term
So, the answer is: i (A fresh and important long-term goal)
Question 18: Paragraph E
In paragraph E, we can see the mention of the effect of energy consumption in the transport sector on the environment. This is specified by the statistic provided on CO2 (carbon-di-oxide). The paragraph says that CO2 emissions are projected to rise by 50% by 2020 because of the increase in traffic. So, the environment is paying heavily for the increase of CO2.
So, the answer is: v (The environmental cost of road transport)
Question 19: Paragraph G
Paragraph G proposes a solution that concentrates on road transport only through pricing. This is because the previous paragraph (paragraph E) talks about transport rebalance.
So, the answer is: x (Restricting road use through charging policies alone)
Question 20: Paragraph H
Paragraph H is also about another solution to achieve transport balance. Here, the approach is to concentrate “… .. .on road transport pricing but is accompanied by measures to increase the efficiency of the other modes (better quality of services, logistics, technology.)”.
Here, other modes mean other transport methods.
So, the answer is: ii (Charging for roads and improving other transport methods)
Question 21: Paragraph I
Paragraph I specifically talks about the change needed to restructure the modes of transport and the transport network. Look at the first two lines “the third approach comprises a series of measures ranging from pricing to revitalising alternative modes of transport and targeting investment in the trans-European network… … ”
So, the answer is: iv (Taking all the steps necessary to change transport patterns)
Question 22-26: (TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN)
In this type of question, candidates are asked to find out whether:
The statement in the question matches with the account in the text- TRUE
The statement in the question contradicts with the account in the text- FALSE
The statement in the question has no clear connection with the account in the text- NOT GIVEN
Question 22: The need for transport is growing, despite technological developments.
Keywords for this answer: growing, technological developments,
In paragraph A, look at these lines, “Although modern information technologies can reduce the demand for physical transport by facilitating teleworking and teleservices, the requirement for transport continues to rise.” So, the main indication here is “the requirement or need for transport is rising”.
In this paragraph,
- requirement means need
- rise means grow
- information technologies means technological developments
So, the answer is: TRUE
Question 23: To reduce production costs, some industries have been moved closer to their relevant customers.
Keywords for this answer: reduce production costs, closer to customers
The answer is found in paragraph B. “This phenomenon has been emphasized by the relocation of some industries, particularly those which are labour intensive, to reduce production costs, even though the production site is hundreds or even thousands of kilometres away from the final assembly or away from users.”
This means that some industries are moved much far away from their relevant customers, not moved closer.
So, the answer is: FALSE
Question 24: Cars are prohibitively expensive in some EU candidate countries.
Keywords for this answer: prohibitively expensive, candidate countries.
The phrase “EU candidate countries” is mentioned in paragraph C. However, there is no mention of any information about the price of EU countries’ cars or any indication of whether they are expensive or not.
So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN
Question 25: The Gothenburg European Council was set up 30 years ago.
Keywords for this answer: The Gothenburg Council, 30 years ago
In Paragraph D, we find the mention of The Gothenburg Council. However, there is no information about the founding time of the Gothenburg Council in this paragraph or the following paragraph.
Don’t be fooled by the mention of ’30 years’ at the end of paragraph D. It indicates to the time needed to complete the objective of sustainable development.
So, the answer is: NOT GIVEN
Question 26: By the end of this decade, CO2 emissions from transport are predicted to reach 739 billion tonnes.
Keywords for this answer: the end of this decade, 739 billion tonnes,
In paragraph E, the writer argues that “… .. CO2 emissions from transport can be expected to increase by 50% to 1,113 billion tonnes, compared with the 739 billion tonnes recorded in 1990.” This means that 739 billion tonnes is the figure or CO2 emissions in 1990, not “by the end of this decade”.
So, the answer is: FALSE