IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 9, Test 4: Reading Passage 2; Young children’s sense of identity; with top solutions and step-by step detailed explanations

IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge 9, Test 4: Reading Passage 2; Young children’s sense of identity; with top solutions and step-by step detailed explanations

This IELTS Reading post focuses on all the solutions for IELTS Cambridge 9 Test 4 Reading Passage 2 which is entitled ‘Young children’s sense of identity’. This is a targeted post for candidates who have lots of problems in finding answers for the Reading module. This post can guide you the best to comprehend each Reading answer without facing much difficulty. Tracing IELTS Reading answers is a slow process and I sincerely hope this post can assist you in your IELTS Reading preparation.

 

IELTS Cambridge 9 Test 4: AC Reading Module

Reading Passage 2:

The headline of the passage: Young children’s sense of identity

Questions 14-19 (Identifying information):

[This question asks you to find information from the passage and write the number of the paragraph (A, B, C or D … .. ) in the answer sheet. Now, if the question is given in the very first part of the question set, I’d request you not to answer them. It’s mainly because this question will not follow any sequence, and so it will surely kill your time. Rather, you should answer all the other questions first. And just like List of Headings, only read the first two lines or last two lines of the expected paragraph initially. If you find the answers, you need not read the middle part. If you don’t find answers yet, you can skim the middle part of the paragraph. Keywords will be a useful matter here.]

Question 14: an account of the method used by researchers in a particular study

Keywords for the question: method used, researchers, particular study,    

In paragraph G, the writer gives reference to a particular study in lines 4-8, “In one experiment, Lewis and Brooks-Gunn (1979) dabbed some red power on the noses of children who were playing in front of a mirror, and then observed how often they touched their noses. The psychologists reasoned that if the children knew what they usually looked like, they would be surprised by the unusual red mark and would start touching it.”

Here, a particular study means one experiment

So, the answer is: G

Question 15: the role of imitation in developing a sense of identity

Keywords for the question: imitation, developing, sense of identity,  

Paragraph C talks about mimicry or imitation by little children. “Another powerful source of information for infants about the effects they can have on the world around them is provided when others mimic them. Many parents spend a lot of time, particularly in the early months, copying their infant’s vocalizations. . … However,  Lewis and Brooks-Gunn (1979) suggest that infants’ developing understanding that the movements they see in the mirror are contingent on their own, leads to a growing awareness that they are distinct from other people.”

Here, imitate and copying means mimic, developing a sense of identity means are distinct from other people

So, the answer is: C

Question 16: the age at which children can usually identify a static image of themselves

Keywords for the question: age, children, usually identify, static image, themselves,    

Again, take a look at paragraph G, the writer states in the beginning, “Lewis and Brooks-Gunn argued that an important developmental milestone is reached when children become able to recognise themselves visually without the support of seeing contingent movement. This recognition occurs around their second birthday.”

Here, identify a static image of themselves means recognise themselves visually without the support of seeing contingent movement

So, the answer is: G

Question 17: a reason for the limitations of scientific research into ‘self-as-subject’

Keywords for the question: reason, limitations, research, ‘self-as-subject’,

The answer is found in paragraph D. The author says here, “Empirical investigations of the self-as-subject in young children are, however, rather scarce because of difficulties of communication: even if young infants can reflect on their experience, they certainly cannot express this aspect of the self directly.”

Here, scarce and cannot express = limitations

So, the answer is: D

Question 18: reference to a possible link between culture and a particular form of behaviour

Keywords for the question: possible link, culture, particular, behaviour,

In paragraph H, the author says in the last lines, “Although it may be less marked in other societies, the link between the sense of ‘self’ and of ‘ownership’ is a notable feature of childhood in Western societies.”

These lines suggest that there is a possible link between the special behaviour (of ‘self’ and of ‘ownership’) and culture (Western societies).

So, the answer is: H

Question 19: examples of the wide range of features that contribute to the sense of ‘self-as-object’

Keywords for the question: wide range of features, contribute, sense, ‘self-as-object’,

If we skim-read and go to paragraph E, we find the reference of ‘self-as-object’. So, we need to scan this paragraph. In lines 3-4 of the paragraph, the writer says, “This second step in the development of a full sense is what James called the ‘self-as-object’.”

Then, at the end of the paragraph, we find the wide range of features that contribute to this sense, “ . .. characteristics which derive their meaning from comparison or interaction with other people (such as trustworthiness, shyness, sporting ability).”

So, the answer is: E

Questions 20-23: (Matching research findings with the researchers)

[In this kind of questions, the candidates have to match the statements which are stated by different researchers given in the list. Candidates must write the correct letter A, B, C, D or E; and not the correct name.]

Question 20: A sense of identity can never be formed without relationships with other people.

Keywords for the question: sense of identity, never be formed, without relationships, other people,

In paragraph F, the writer describes in lines 6-9, “Mead (1934) went even further: the self is essentially a social structure, and it arises in social experience  . . .. . . … it is impossible to conceive of a self arising outside of social experience”

Here, relationships with other people means social experience

So, the answer is: D (Mead)

Question 21: A child’s awareness of self is related to a sense of mastery over things and people

Keywords for the question: awareness of self, mastery, things, people

In paragraph B, the writer says, “Cooley (1902) suggested that a sense of the self-as-subject was primarily concerned with being able to exercise power. He proposed that the earliest examples of this are in infant’s attempts to control physical objects, such as toys and his or her own limbs. This is followed by attempts to affect the behaviour of other people.”

Here, sense of the self-as-subject = awareness of self, control physical objects, such as toys and his or her own limbs = mastery over things,

So, the answer is: B (Cooley)

Question 22: At a certain age, children’s sense of identity leads to aggressive behaviour.

Keywords for the question: certain age, aggressive behaviour

In paragraph H, the writer states, “In the longitudinal study of groups of three or four children, Bronson (1975) found that the intensity of the frustration and anger in their disagreements increased sharply between the ages of 1 and 2 years.”

Here, aggressive behaviour = frustration and anger

So, the answer is: E (Bronson)

Question 23: Observing their own reflection contributes to children’s self awareness.

Keywords for the question: observing, reflection, self awareness

In paragraph C, the writer states, “However, Lewis and Brooks-Gunn suggest that infants’ developing understanding that the movements they see in the mirror are contingent on their own, leads to a growing awareness that they are distinct from other people.”

Here, movements in the mirror = reflection, see = observe, lead to = contribute to,

So, the answer is: C (Lewis and Brooks-Gunn)

Questions 24-26 (Completing summary)

[In this type of question, candidates are asked to complete a summary with ONE WORD ONLY from the passage. Keywords are important to find answers correctly. Generally, this type of question maintains a sequence. Find the keywords in the passage and you are most likely to find the answers.]

Title of the summary: How children acquire a sense of identity

Question 24: First, children come to realise that they can have an effect on the world around them, for example by handling objects, or causing the image to move when they face a _________.

Keywords for this question: effect on the world, handling objects, image, move, face

In paragraph C, the writer says in lines 4-5, “.. … .  …. young children enjoy looking in mirrors, where the movements they can see are dependent upon their own movements.”

The lines suggest that when young children look in the mirrors, they can cause the image to move by moving themselves.

So, the answer is: mirrors  

Question 25: This aspect of self awareness is difficult to research directly, because of __________ problems.

Keywords for this question: difficult to research, problems,

We can find about ‘research difficulties’ in paragraph D. Here, in lines 4-7, the author writes, “Empirical investigations of the self-as-subject in young children are, however, rather scarce because of difficulties of communication: even if young infants can reflect on their experience, they certainly cannot express this aspect of the self directly.”

Here, investigations = research, difficult to research = rather scarce,

So, the answer is: communication  

Question 26: In Western societies at least, the development of self awareness is often linked to a sense of _____________, and can lead to disputes..

Keywords for this question: Western, self awareness, linked,

At the end of paragraph H, “Although it may be less marked in other societies, the link between the sense of ‘self’ and of ‘ownership’ is a notable feature of childhood in Western societies.”

Here, disputes means disagreement

So, the answers are: ownership   

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 9 Test 4 Reading Passage 1

Click here for solutions to Cambridge 9 Test 4 Reading Passage 3

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