This IELTS Reading post focuses on all the solutions for IELTS Cambridge 7 Test 3 Reading Passage 2, which is entitled ‘Population movements and genetics’. This is a targeted post for IELTS candidates who have great problems in finding answers for the Academic Reading module. This post can guide you the best to comprehend each Reading answer without facing much difficulty. Tracing IELTS Reading answers is a gradual process and I sincerely hope this post can help you in your IELTS Reading preparation.
IELTS Cambridge 7 Test 3: AC Reading Module
Reading Passage 2:
The headline of the passage: Population movements and genetics
Questions 14-19 (List of headings):
[In this question type, IELTS candidates are provided with a list of headings, usually identified with lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, etc,). A heading will refer to the main idea of the paragraph or section of the text. Candidates must find out the equivalent heading to the correct paragraphs or sections, which are marked with alphabets A, B, C and so forth. Candidates need to write the appropriate Roman numerals in the boxes on their answer sheets. There will always be two or three more headings than there are paragraphs or sections. So, some of the headings will not be used. It is also likely that some paragraphs or sections may not be included in the task. Generally, the first paragraph is an example paragraph that will be done for the candidates for their understanding of the task.
TIPS: Skimming is the best reading technique. You need not understand every word here. Just try to gather the gist of the sentences. That’s all. Read quickly and don’t stop until you finish each sentence. ]
Question 14: Section A
We should quickly read the whole paragraph because it is a very short one.
The first sentence deals with how the study of human population movements was in the past (based on archaeological and fossil evidence).
Then in lines 4-7, the writer mentions, “A number of techniques developed since the 1950s, however, have placed the study of these subjects on a sounder and more objective footing.”
After that in lines 8-11, the writer mentions how the study of human population movements is done in the present time using genetic material.
So, the answer is: iv (Developments in the methods used to study early population movements)
Question 15: Section B
Section B raises some questions about migration to America and they are found in the middle of the section.
In lines 8-12 the author asks, “… .. . But was there one major wave of migration across the Bering Strait into the Americas, or several? And when did this event, or events, take place?”
So, the answer is: vii (Long-standing questions about prehistoric migration to America)
Question 16: Section C
Have a look at the first and last few lines of section C.
In lines 1-6 the writer mentions, “An important project, led by the biological anthropologist Robert Williams, focused on the variants (called Gm allotypes) of one particular protein -immunoglobin G – found in the fluid portion of human blood. .”
Then in lines 11-16 the writer mentions, “ . . . . . Thus, by comparing the Gm allotypes of two different populations (e.g. two Indian tribes), one can establish their genetic ‘distance’, which itself can be calibrated to give an indication of the length of time since these populations last interbred.”
Here, blood-variants = the variants found in human blood, measure corresponds to = give an indication of the length of, closeness of the relationship = interbred,
So, the lines suggest that the project was an analysis of blood variants and it measures the distance (closeness) of the link between different populations.
So, the answer is: x (How analysis of blood-variants measures the closeness of the relationship between different populations)
Question 17: Section D
Section D shows the outcomes of the project by Robert Williams and his colleagues.
In the first lines the writer says, “Williams and his colleagues sampled the blood of over 5,000 American Indians in western North America during a twenty-year period.”
Then in lines 4-7 the writer mentions, “ .. . . They found that their Gm allotypes could be divided into two groups, one of which also corresponded to the genetic typing of Central and South American Indians. Other tests showed that the Inuit (or Eskimo) and Aleut3 formed a third group.”
Therefore, we can guess that section D talks about the results of the research into blood-variants.
So, the answer is: i (The results of the research into blood-variants)
Question 18: Section E
In section E, the first lines say, “How far does other research support these conclusions?”
The lines suggest that other research has been done on blood-variants.
Then, in lines 2-9, the writer says, “ . .. Geneticist Douglas Wallace has studied mitochondrial DNA4 in blood samples from three widely separated Native American groups: Pima-Papago Indians in Arizona, Maya Indians on the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico, and Ticuna Indians in the Upper Amazon region of Brazil.”
These lines mean that Douglas Wallace is a scientist who works with genes and other genetic matters. He has studied the DNA in blood samples of three groups of people; Pima-Papago, Maya Indians and Ticuna Indians.
So, the answer is: vi (Further genetic evidence relating to the three-wave theory)
Question 19: Section F
Section F opens with these lines, “There are two other kinds of research that have thrown some light on the origins of the Native American population; they involve the study of teeth and of languages.”
Then, in the next few lines we find words like teeth, tooth crown and roots, single-rooted, triple-rooted etc.
So, the answer is: ii (Dental evidence)
Questions 20 and 21: (Completing Table)
(In this type of question candidates need to fill in the gaps in a table. For this table candidates need to write the letter that corresponds to the correct migration routes out of six routes.)
These questions are related to Robert Williams’ research results which can be traced in Section D.
Question 20: Route _____________
Keywords for the question: 15,000 or more, years ago,
In section D, the author says in lines 10-16, “ .. . . From this evidence, it was deduced that there had been three major waves of migration across the Bering Strait. The first, Paleo-lndian, wave more than 15,000 years ago was ancestral to all Central and South American Indians.”
Now, if we look closely at the given picture, we can find out that only route E (marked with red arrows) starts somewhere from Asia, crossing the Bering Strait and then continues to Central and South America.
So, the answer is: E
Question 21: Route _____________
Keywords for the question: 600 to 700, years ago,
In section D, the author says in lines 16-21, “ . .. . The second wave, about 14,000-12,000 years ago, brought Na-Dene hunters, ancestors of the Navajo and Apache (who only migrated south from Canada about 600 or 700 years ago).”
Again, if we look closely at the given picture, we can find out that route C (marked with pink arrows) starts from Asia, crossing the Bering Strait and then stops in South Canada (first period – 14,000-12,000 years ago). Then, in the second period (600 to 700 years ago) they took route D (marked with blue arrows) to the south from Canada.
So, the answer is: D
Questions 22-25 (Classifying groups)
[This type of question asks candidates to classify information from the given reading text. Candidates are given some groups from the text, and a list of options, which are listed as A, B, C etc. They must match the correct groups with the correct options.
N.B.: This question doesn’t follow any sequence. So, they should be answered after all other questions in the passage.]
Question 22: Name of group: Inuit Wave number: ________
Keywords for this question: Inuit,
Take a close look at section D, where we find the reference of the three waves for the first time. Here, in the last lines, the writer says, “ . . . The third wave, perhaps 10,000 or 9,000 years ago, saw the migration from North-east Asia of groups ancestral to the modern Eskimo and Aleut.”
So, the group name is Eskimo and Aleut. But, Eskimo and Aleut is not an option in the question.
What should we do now?
In section D, take a look at lines 8-10, “… .. . Other tests showed that the Inuit (or Eskimo) and Aleut3 formed a third group.”
Therefore, Eskimo means Inuit.
So, the answer is: C (the third wave)
Question 23: Name of group: Apache Wave number: ________
Keywords for this question: Apache,
Again, in section D, the author writes in lines 16-21, “ . .. The second wave, about 14,000-12,000 years ago, brought Na-Dene hunters, ancestors of the Navajo and Apache (who only migrated south from Canada about 600 or 700 years ago).”
So, the answer is: B (the second wave)
Question 24: Name of group: Pima-Papago Wave number: ________
Keywords for this question: Pima-Papago,
Question 25: Name of group: Ticuna Wave number: ________
Keywords for this question: Ticuna,
First, take a look at lines 13-16 in section D, “.. . .. The first, Paleo-lndian, wave more than 15,000 years ago was ancestral to all Central and South American Indians.”
This means Paleo-Indians were originated from the first wave (A).
Now, in section E, read lines 2-13, the writer explains the Paleo-Indian group, “Geneticist Douglas Wallace has studied mitochondrial DNA4 in blood samples from three widely separated Native American groups: Pima-Papago Indians in Arizona, Maya Indians on the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico, and Ticuna Indians in the Upper Amazon region of Brazil. As would have been predicted by Robert Williams’ work, all three groups appear to be descended from the same ancestral (Paleo-lndian) population.”
These lines suggest that Pima-Papago Indians, Maya Indians and Ticuna Indians are all descendants of Paleo-Indian population.
So, the answers are:
- A (the first wave)
- A (the first wave)
Question 26: Multiple choice questions
[This type of question asks you to choose a suitable answer from the options using the knowledge you gained from the passage. Generally, this question is found as the last question so you should not worry much about it. Finding all the answers to previous questions gives you a good idea about the title.]
Question 26: Christy Turner’s research involved the examination of –
Keywords for this question: Christy Turner’s research, examination of,
We find the reference of Christy Turner’s research in section F.
Here, in lines 10-14, the writer says, “ . . . Studies carried out by Turner of many thousands of New and Old World specimens, both ancient and modern, . .. . .. .”
Therefore, it can be understood from these lines that Christy Turner’s research involved the examination of teeth from both ancient (prehistoric) and modern Americans and Asians.
So, the answer is: A (teeth from both prehistoric and modern Americans and Asians)